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dc.contributor.authorMartin, Rebekah L.
dc.contributor.authorHarrison, Kara
dc.contributor.authorProctor, Caitlin R.
dc.contributor.authorMartin, Amanda
dc.contributor.authorWilliams, Krista
dc.contributor.authorPruden, Amy
dc.contributor.authorEdwards, Marc A.
dc.identifier.citationMartin, R.L.; Harrison, K.; Proctor, C.R.; Martin, A.; Williams, K.; Pruden, A.; Edwards, M.A. Chlorine Disinfection of Legionella spp., L. pneumophila, and Acanthamoeba under Warm Water Premise Plumbing Conditions. Microorganisms 2020, 8, 1452.
dc.description.abstractPremise plumbing conditions can contribute to low chlorine or chloramine disinfectant residuals and reactions that encourage opportunistic pathogen growth and create risk of Legionnaires’ Disease outbreaks. This bench-scale study investigated the growth of Legionella spp. and Acanthamoeba in direct contact with premise plumbing materials—glass-only control, cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) pipe, magnesium anode rods, iron pipe, iron oxide, pH 10, or a combination of factors. Simulated glass water heaters (SGWHs) were colonized by Legionella pneumophila and exposed to a sequence of 0, 0.1, 0.25, and 0.5 mg/L chlorine or chloramine, at two levels of total organic carbon (TOC), over 8 weeks. Legionella pneumophila thrived in the presence of the magnesium anode by itself and or combination with other factors. In most cases, 0.5 mg/L Cl2 caused a significant rapid reduction of L. pneumophila, Legionella spp., or total bacteria (16S rRNA) gene copy numbers, but at higher TOC (>1.0 mg C/L), a chlorine residual of 0.5 mg/L Cl2 was not effective. Notably, Acanthamoeba was not significantly reduced by the 0.5 mg/L chlorine dose.en
dc.rightsCreative Commons Attribution 4.0 Internationalen
dc.titleChlorine Disinfection of Legionella spp., L. pneumophila, and Acanthamoeba under Warm Water Premise Plumbing Conditionsen
dc.typeArticle - Refereeden_US
dc.contributor.departmentCivil and Environmental Engineeringen

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International
License: Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International