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dc.contributor.authorMartin, Rebekah L.
dc.contributor.authorHarrison, Kara
dc.contributor.authorProctor, Caitlin R.
dc.contributor.authorMartin, Amanda
dc.contributor.authorWilliams, Krista
dc.contributor.authorPruden, Amy
dc.contributor.authorEdwards, Marc A.
dc.date.accessioned2020-09-28T12:38:59Z
dc.date.available2020-09-28T12:38:59Z
dc.date.issued2020-09-22
dc.identifier.citationMartin, R.L.; Harrison, K.; Proctor, C.R.; Martin, A.; Williams, K.; Pruden, A.; Edwards, M.A. Chlorine Disinfection of Legionella spp., L. pneumophila, and Acanthamoeba under Warm Water Premise Plumbing Conditions. Microorganisms 2020, 8, 1452.
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10919/100077
dc.description.abstractPremise plumbing conditions can contribute to low chlorine or chloramine disinfectant residuals and reactions that encourage opportunistic pathogen growth and create risk of Legionnaires’ Disease outbreaks. This bench-scale study investigated the growth of Legionella spp. and Acanthamoeba in direct contact with premise plumbing materials—glass-only control, cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) pipe, magnesium anode rods, iron pipe, iron oxide, pH 10, or a combination of factors. Simulated glass water heaters (SGWHs) were colonized by Legionella pneumophila and exposed to a sequence of 0, 0.1, 0.25, and 0.5 mg/L chlorine or chloramine, at two levels of total organic carbon (TOC), over 8 weeks. Legionella pneumophila thrived in the presence of the magnesium anode by itself and or combination with other factors. In most cases, 0.5 mg/L Cl2 caused a significant rapid reduction of L. pneumophila, Legionella spp., or total bacteria (16S rRNA) gene copy numbers, but at higher TOC (>1.0 mg C/L), a chlorine residual of 0.5 mg/L Cl2 was not effective. Notably, Acanthamoeba was not significantly reduced by the 0.5 mg/L chlorine dose.en
dc.format.mimetypeapplication/pdf
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.publisherMDPI
dc.rightsCreative Commons Attribution 4.0 Internationalen
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/en
dc.titleChlorine Disinfection of Legionella spp., L. pneumophila, and Acanthamoeba under Warm Water Premise Plumbing Conditionsen
dc.typeArticle - Refereeden_US
dc.date.updated2020-09-25T13:30:27Z
dc.contributor.departmentCivil and Environmental Engineeringen
dc.title.serialMicroorganisms
dc.identifier.doihttps://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8091452
dc.type.dcmitypeText
dc.type.dcmitypeStillImage


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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International
License: Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International