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dc.contributor.authorLi, Wenhuien_US
dc.description.abstractColloidal nanoparticles are widely used for industrial and scientific purposes in many fields, including catalysis, biosensing, drug delivery, and electrochemistry. It has been reported that most of the functional properties and performance of the nanoparticles are highly dependent on the particle size and morphology. Therefore, controlled synthesis of nanomaterials with desired size and structure is greatly beneficial to the application. This dissertation presents a systematic study on the effect of ligands on the colloidal Pd nanoparticle synthesis mechanism, kinetics, and final particle size. Specifically, the research is focused on investigating how the ligand bindings to different metal species, i.e., metal precursor and nanoparticle surface, affect the nucleation and growth pathways and rates and connecting the binding thermodynamics to the kinetics quantitatively. The first part of the work (Chapters 4 and 5) is establishing isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) methodology for obtaining the thermodynamic values (Gibbs free energy, equilibrium constant, enthalpy and entropy) of the ligand-metal precursor binding reactions, and the simultaneous metal precursor trimer dissociation. In brief, the binding products and reactions were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and an ITC model was developed to fit the unique ITC heat curve and extract the thermodynamic properties of the reactions above. Furthermore, in Chapter 6, the thermodynamic properties, especially the entropy trend changing with the ligand chain length was investigated on different metal precursors based on the established ITC methodology, showing that the entropic penalty plays a significant role in the binding equilibrium. The second part of the dissertation (Chapter 7 and 8) presents the kinetic and mechanistic study on size-tuning of the colloidal Pd nanoparticles only by changing different coordinating solvents as ligands together with the trioctylphosphine ligand. In-situ small angle X-ray scattering was applied to characterize the time evolutions of size, size distribution, and particle concentration using synthesis reactor connected to a capillary flow cell. From the real-time kinetic measurements, the nucleation and growth rates were calculated and correlated with the thermodynamics, i.e., Gibbs free energies of solvent-ligand-metal precursor reactivity and ligand-nanoparticle surface binding which were modified by the coordination of different solvents. Higher reactivity leads to faster nucleation and high nanoparticle concentration, and stronger solvent/ligand-particle coordination energy results in higher ligand capping density and slower growth. The interplay of both effects reduces the final particle size. Furthermore, because of the significance of the ligand-metal interactions, the synthesis temperature and ligand to metal precursor ratio were systematically to modify the relative binding between the ligand and precursor, and the ligand and nanoparticle, and determine the effect on the nucleation and growth rates. The results show that the relative rates of nucleation and growth is critical to the final size. A methodology for using the in-situ measurements to predict the final size by developing a kinetic model based is discussed.en_US
dc.publisherVirginia Techen_US
dc.rightsThis item is protected by copyright and/or related rights. Some uses of this item may be deemed fair and permitted by law even without permission from the rights holder(s), or the rights holder(s) may have licensed the work for use under certain conditions. For other uses you need to obtain permission from the rights holder(s).en_US
dc.subjectColloidal metal nanoparticlesen_US
dc.subjectPd nanoparticlesen_US
dc.subjectnanoparticle synthesisen_US
dc.subjectnucleation and growth kineticsen_US
dc.titleConnecting Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Ligand Controlled Colloidal Pd Nanoparticle Synthesisen_US
dc.contributor.departmentChemical Engineeringen_US
dc.description.degreeDoctor of Philosophyen_US
thesis.degree.nameDoctor of Philosophyen_US
thesis.degree.grantorVirginia Polytechnic Institute and State Universityen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineChemical Engineeringen_US
dc.contributor.committeechairKarim, Ayman M.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberDavis, Richey M.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberDucker, William A.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberIvanov, Sergei A.en_US

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