Nano Silica and Metakaolin Effects on the Behavior of Concrete Containing Rubber Crumbs
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The excessive production of worn tires remaining from the transportation system and the lack of proper procedures to recycle or reuse these materials have caused critical environmental issues. Due to the rubber’s toughness, this material could be implemented to increase concrete toughness, and by crushing the tires concrete aggregates can be replaced proportionally with rubber crumbs and large quantities of scrapped rubber. However, this substitution decreases the concrete strength. In this study, crushed rubber with sizes from 1 to 3 mm and 3 to 6 mm were replaced by 5%, 10%, and 15% sand; the combination of two additives of nano silica and metakaolin additives with optimum values was used to compensate the degradation of the strength and improve the workability of the concrete. Moreover, the compressive strength, tensile behavior, and modulus of elasticity were measured and compared. The results indicate that the optimum use of nano silica and metakaolin additives could compensate the negative effects of the rubber material implementation in the concrete mixture while improving the overall workability and flowability of the concrete mixture.