Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Increases the Adhesion of Lactobacillus reuteri to Host Mucin to Enhance Probiotic Effects
Luo, Xin M.
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The ability to adhere to the intestinal mucus layer is an important property of probiotic bacteria. Lactobacillus reuteri strains ZJ615 and ZJ617 show low and high adhesion, respectively, to intestinal epithelial cells. In this study, we quantified bacterial cell wall-associated glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenases (cw-GAPDH) and bacterial cell membrane permeability in both strains using immunoblotting and flow cytometry, respectively. Highly adhesive L. reuteri ZJ617 possessed significantly more cw-GAPDH, higher cell membrane permeability, and significantly higher adhesive ability toward mucin compared with low-adhesive L. reuteri ZJ615. In vitro adhesion studies and analysis of interaction kinetics using the Octet, the system revealed significantly decreased interaction between L. reuteri and mucin when mucin was oxidized when bacterial surface proteins were removed when bacteria were heat-inactivated at 80 °C for 30 min, and when the interaction was blocked with an anti-GAPDH antibody. SWISS-MODEL analysis suggested intensive interactions between mucin glycans (GalNAcα1-O-Ser, GalNAcαSer, and Galβ3GalNAc) and GAPDH. Furthermore, in vivo studies revealed significantly higher numbers of bacteria adhering to the jejunum, ileum, and colon of piglets orally inoculated with L. reuteri ZJ617 compared with those inoculated with L. reuteri ZJ615; this led to a significantly decreased rate of diarrhea in piglets inoculated with L. reuteri ZJ617. In conclusion, there are strong correlations among the abundance of cw-GAPDH in L. reuteri, the ability of the bacterium to adhere to the host, and the health benefits of this probiotic.