Dynamics of Cell Death After Conventional IRE and H-FIRE Treatments
Aycock, Kenneth N.
Davalos, Rafael V.
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High-frequency irreversible electroporation (H-FIRE) has emerged as an alternative to conventional irreversible electroporation (IRE) to overcome the issues associated with neuromuscular electrical stimulation that appear in IRE treatments. In H-FIRE, the monopolar pulses typically used in IRE are replaced with bursts of short bipolar pulses. Currently, very little is known regarding how the use of a different waveform affects the cell death dynamics and mechanisms. In this study, human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells were treated with a typical IRE protocol and various H-FIRE schemes with the same energized time. Cell viability, membrane integrity and Caspase 3/7 activity were assessed at different times after the treatment. In both treatments, we identified two different death dynamics (immediate and delayed) and we quantified the electric field ranges that lead to each of them. While in the typical IRE protocol, the electric field range leading to a delayed cell death is very narrow, this range is wider in H-FIRE and can be increased by reducing the pulse length. Membrane integrity in cells suffering a delayed cell death shows a similar time evolution in all treatments, however, Caspase 3/7 expression was only observed in cells treated with H-FIRE.