Citrus pectin modified by microfluidization and ultrasonication: Improved emulsifying and encapsulation properties
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In this study, modified citrus pectin treated with a combination of microfluidization and ultrasonication was compared to the original and ultrasonication treated pectin on hydrodynamic diameter, molecular weight, polydispersity, zeta potential, apparent viscosity, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity, scanning electron microscope (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), their emulsifying properties and encapsulation properties. Modified pectin treated with a combination of microfluidization and moderate ultrasonication (MUB) was found to have lowest hydrodynamic diameter (418 nm), molecular weight (237.69 kDa) and polydispersity (0.12), and relatively low apparent viscosity among all pectin samples. Furthermore, it showed significantly higher DPPH radical scavenging capacity than the original pectin although only slightly higher than that of ultrasonication treated one (UB). MUB showed a thin fibrous morphology and decreased degree of branching from SEM and AFM. Emulsion stabilized by MUB had highest centrifugal and thermal stability compared to emulsions stabilized by UB and the original pectin. This could be attributed to higher interfacial loading of MUB (17.90 mg/m(2)) forming more compact interfacial layer observed by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Moreover, both MUB and UB exhibited improved encapsulation functionality to protect cholecalciferol (vitamin D-3) from UV degradation compared to the original pectin.