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dc.contributor.authorHarshaw, H. W.en
dc.contributor.authorCole, Nicholas W.en
dc.contributor.authorDayer, Ashley A.en
dc.contributor.authorRutter, Jonathan D.en
dc.contributor.authorFulton, David C.en
dc.contributor.authorRaedeke, Andrew H.en
dc.contributor.authorSchuster, Rudy M.en
dc.contributor.authorDuberstein, Jennifer N.en
dc.description.abstractRecreation specialization is a framework that can be used to explain the variation among outdoor recreationists' preferences, attitudes, and behaviors. Recreation specialization has been operationalized using several approaches, including summative indices, cluster analysis, and self-classification categorical measures. Although these approaches measure the multiple dimensions of the framework, they may not reflect the relative contribution of the dimensions to individuals' degree of engagement. We illustrate an approach that uses second-order confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) factor scores as weights to determine a person's degree of recreation specialization and compares the CFA-based results to those derived from cluster analysis. This approach permits the use of a broader set of statistical tests when compared to categorical specialization measures and provides information about the distribution of responses. Data were collected from an online survey of eBird registrants from the United States.en
dc.description.sponsorshipNational Flyway Council [CON000000054673, 00049956]; Social Sciences & Humanities Research Council of CanadaSocial Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada (SSHRC) [435-2017-1352]en
dc.rightsCC0 1.0 Universalen
dc.subjectRecreation specializationen
dc.subjectsecond-order confirmatory factor analysisen
dc.subjectcluster analysisen
dc.titleTesting a continuous measure of recreation specialization among birdwatchersen
dc.typeArticle - Refereeden
dc.contributor.departmentFish and Wildlife Conservationen
dc.description.notesFunding for this project was provided by the National Flyway Council ( through a grant to the University of Minnesota Award: CON000000054673 Project#: 00049956 (DCF). Representatives of the National Flyway Council who are not named authors contributed to study design, but not to data collection/analysis, decision to publish, nor preparation of the manuscript. The preparation of this manuscript was supported by funding from the Social Sciences & Humanities Research Council of Canada (File #435-2017-1352; HWH).en
dc.title.serialHuman Dimensions of Wildlifeen
dc.description.adminPublic domain – authored by a U.S. government employeeen

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CC0 1.0 Universal
License: CC0 1.0 Universal