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dc.contributor.authorTrammell, Tara L. E.en
dc.contributor.authorPataki, Diane E.en
dc.contributor.authorPouyat, Richard, Ven
dc.contributor.authorGroffman, Peter M.en
dc.contributor.authorRosier, Carlen
dc.contributor.authorBettez, Neilen
dc.contributor.authorCavender-Bares, Jeannineen
dc.contributor.authorGrove, Morgan J.en
dc.contributor.authorHall, Sharon J.en
dc.contributor.authorHeffernan, Jamesen
dc.contributor.authorHobbie, Sarah E.en
dc.contributor.authorMorse, Jennifer L.en
dc.contributor.authorNeill, Christopheren
dc.contributor.authorSteele, Meredithen
dc.description.abstractIn urban areas, anthropogenic drivers of ecosystem structure and function are thought to predominate over larger-scale biophysical drivers. Residential yards are influenced by individual homeowner preferences and actions, and these factors are hypothesized to converge yard structure across broad scales. We examined soil total C and total delta C-13, organic C and organic delta C-13, total N, and delta N-15 in residential yards and corresponding reference ecosystems in six cities across the United States that span major climates and ecological biomes (Baltimore, Maryland; Boston, Massachusetts; Los Angeles, California; Miami, Florida; Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota; and Phoenix, Arizona). Across the cities, we found soil C and N concentrations and soil delta N-15 were less variable in residential yards compared to reference sites supporting the hypothesis that soil C, N, and delta N-15 converge across these cities. Increases in organic soil C, soil N, and soil delta N-15 across urban, suburban, and rural residential yards in several cities supported the hypothesis that soils responded similarly to altered resource inputs across cities, contributing to convergence of soil C and N in yards compared to natural systems. Soil C and N dynamics in residential yards showed evidence of increasing C and N inputs to urban soils or dampened decomposition rates over time that are influenced by climate and/or housing age across the cities. In the warmest cities (Los Angeles, Miami, Phoenix), greater organic soil C and higher soil delta C-13 in yards compared to reference sites reflected the greater proportion of C-4 plants in these yards. In the two warm arid cities (Los Angeles, Phoenix), total soil delta C-13 increased and organic soil delta C-13 decreased with increasing home age indicating greater inorganic C in the yards around newer homes. In general, soil organic C and delta C-13, soil N, and soil delta N-15 increased with increasing home age suggesting increased soil C and N cycling rates and associated C-12 and N-14 losses over time control yard soil C and N dynamics. This study provides evidence that conversion of native reference ecosystems to residential areas results in convergence of soil C and N at a continental scale. The mechanisms underlying these effects are complex and vary spatially and temporally.en
dc.description.sponsorshipU.S. National Science FoundationNational Science Foundation (NSF) [EF-1065548, 1065737, 1065740, 1065741, 1065772, 1065785, 1065831, 121238320]en
dc.rightsPublic Domainen
dc.subjectnatural abundance carbon stable isotopesen
dc.subjectnatural abundance nitrogen stable isotopesen
dc.subjectresidential yard managementen
dc.subjectsoil C cyclingen
dc.subjectsoil N cyclingen
dc.subjecturban residential yardsen
dc.titleUrban soil carbon and nitrogen converge at a continental scaleen
dc.typeArticle - Refereeden
dc.contributor.departmentSchool of Plant and Environmental Sciencesen
dc.description.notesThe authors thank La'Shaye Ervin, William Borrowman, Moumita Kundu, and Barbara Uhl for field and laboratory assistance. This research was funded by a series of collaborative grants from the U.S. National Science Foundation (EF-1065548, 1065737, 1065740, 1065741, 1065772, 1065785, 1065831, 121238320). The authors appreciate valuable comments by anonymous reviewers on a previous version of the manuscript.en
dc.title.serialEcological Monographsen
dc.description.adminPublic domain – authored by a U.S. government employeeen

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