Ac-dc Bus-interface Bi-directional Converters in Renewable Energy Systems
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This dissertation covers several issues related to the ac-dc bus-interface bi-directional converters in renewable energy systems. The dissertation explores a dc-electronic distribution system for residential and commercial applications with a focus on the design of an ac-dc bi-directional converter for such application. This converter is named as the â Energy Control Centerâ due to its unique role in the system. First, the impact of the unbalanced power from the ac grid, especially the single-phase grid, on the dc system operation is analyzed. Then, a simple ac-dc two-stage topology and an advanced digital control system is proposed with a detailed design procedure. The proposed converter system significantly reduces the dc-link capacitor volume and achieves a dynamics-decoupling operation between the interfaced systems. The total volume of the two-stage topology can be reduced by upto three times compared with the typical design of a full-bridge converter. In addition, film capacitors can be used instead of electrolytic capacitors in the system, and thus the whole system reliability is improved. A set of ac passive plus active filter solutions is proposed for the ac-dc bus-interface converter which significantly reduces the total power filter volume but still eliminate the total leakage current and the common-mode conducted EMI noises by more than 90%. The dc-side low-frequency CM voltage ripple generated by the unbalanced ac voltages can be eliminated as well. The proposed solution features a high reliability and fits three types of the prevalent low-voltage ac distribution systems. Grid synchronization, a critical interface control in ac-dc bus-interface converters, is discussed in detail. First, a novel single-phase grid synchronization solution is proposed to achieve the rejection of multiple noises as well as the capability to track the ac voltage amplitude. Then, a comprehensive modeling methodology of the grid synchronization for three-phase system is proposed to explain the output frequency behaviors of grid-interface power converters at the weak grid, at the islanded condition, and at the multi-converter condition. The proposed models provide a strong tool to predict the grid synchronization instabilities raised from industries under many operating conditions, which is critical in future more-distributed-generation power systems. Islanding detection issues in ac-dc bus-interface converters are discussed in detail. More than five frequency-based islanding detection algorithms are proposed. These solutions achieve different performances and are suitable for different applications, which are advantageous over existing solutions. More importantly, the detailed modeling, trade-off analysis, and design procedures are given to help completely understand the principles. In the end, the effectiveness of the proposed solutions in a multiple-converter system are analyzed. The results drawn from the discussion can help engineers to evaluate other existing solutions as well.
- Doctoral Dissertations