Virginia Cooperative Extension brings the resources of Virginia's land-grant universities, Virginia Tech and Virginia State University, to the people of the commonwealth. Understanding that knowledge is power, we place that power in the hands of Virginians and help them learn how to use it to improve the quality of their lives. Our Extension agents and specialists form a network of educators whose classrooms are the communities, homes, and businesses of Virginia, where they bring research-based solutions to the problems facing Virginians today. To better utilize our resources, we form collaborations with hundreds of public and private partners and volunteers, who help us reach larger and more diverse audiences and also leverage the impact of our work. We are a product of cooperation among local, state, and federal governments in partnership with tens of thousands of citizens, who, through local Extension Leadership Councils, help design, implement, and evaluate our needs-driven programs. We are a dynamic organization that stimulates positive personal and societal change, leading to more productive lives, families, farms, and forests as well as a better environment. Virginia Cooperative Extension is an educational outreach program of Virginia's land-grant universities: Virginia Tech and Virginia State University, and a part of the National Institute for Food and Agriculture, an agency of the United States Department of Agriculture.

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Recent Submissions

  • Selection and Location of Poultry and Livestock Manure Storage 

    Ogejo, Jactone Arogo (Virginia Cooperative Extension, 2009-11-19)
    Manure storage is part of the manure management system of a facility or property where animals and/or poultry are raised. Manure should be considered a resource not a waste to be discarded. Manure contains valuable organic ...
  • Poultry and Livestock Manure Storage: Management and Safety 

    Ogejo, Jactone Arogo (Virginia Cooperative Extension, 2009-11-19)
    To get the most benefit out of the manure, good management practices and observation of safety practices that minimize manure hazards on the farm are important. This publication provides guidelines for good management and ...
  • Nozzles: selection and sizing 

    Grisso, Robert D. (Robert Dwight), 1956-; Hipkins, Patricia A.; Askew, Shawn; Hipkins, Perry Lloyd, 1945-; McCall, David Scott (Virginia Cooperative Extension, 2013-05-23)
    Covers nozzle description, recommended use for common nozzle types, and orifice sizing for agricultural and turf sprayers. Proper selection of a nozzle type and size is essential for correct and accurate pesticide application. ...
  • Tractor Mounted Inclined Lifts 

    Grisso, Robert D. (Robert Dwight), 1956-; Perumpral, John V.; Ohanehi, Donatus Chukwubueze, 1949- (Virginia Cooperative Extension, 2013-01-08)
    This fact sheet provides design details for an inclined tractor lift designed specifically for placing a disabled client on the driver's seat of a Kubota L3400 tractor with a front-end loader. This design, however, can ...
  • Constructing High-tensile Wire Fences 

    Gay, Susan Wood; Heidel, Richard D. (Virginia Cooperative Extension, 2009-05-01)
    Fencing laws, clearing fence lines, laying out fence lines, fence construction, installing wire on fences.
  • Assistive Technologies in Agriculture 

    Grisso, Robert D. (Robert Dwight), 1956-; Perumpral, John V.; Pevarski, Kristen; Ballin, Kirk (Virginia Cooperative Extension, 2010-07-01)
    Assistive technology can help farmers and ranchers who have disabilities or primary injuries to continue to be productive while reducing secondary injuries.
  • Tractor Mounted Lifts 

    Grisso, Robert D. (Robert Dwight), 1956-; Perumpral, John V.; Ohanehi, Donatus Chukwubueze, 1949- (Virginia Cooperative Extension, 2013-01-08)
    Most disabled farmers are able to work if the equipment work space can be accessed without the risk of secondary injuries. One of the ATs widely used in assisting disabled workers to access a tractor or other equipment ...
  • Hand Tools Safety: Lawncare Training Guide 

    Grisso, Robert D. (Robert Dwight), 1956-; Perumpral, John V.; Ohanehi, Donatus Chukwubueze, 1949-; Goatley, Michael; Jamison, Kathleen; Sutphin, Cathy; Swafford, Dan; Estes, Carl (Virginia Cooperative Extension, 2013-11-05)
    Gardening implement safety and care.
  • Tractor Mounted Vertical Lifts 

    Grisso, Robert D. (Robert Dwight), 1956-; Perumpral, John V.; Ohanehi, Donatus Chukwubueze, 1949- (Virginia Cooperative Extension, 2013-01-08)
    Description of vertical lift design for disabled farmers to use on tractors.
  • Tractor Safety: Lawncare Training Guide 

    Grisso, Robert D. (Robert Dwight), 1956-; Perumpral, John V.; Ohanehi, Donatus Chukwubueze, 1949-; Goatley, Michael; Jamison, Kathleen; Sutphin, Cathy; Swafford, Dan; Estes, Carl (Virginia Cooperative Extension, 2009-05-26)
    One out of three farm accidents involve tractors. This publication covers safety guidelines for tractor use on farms and in the green industry.
  • Utility Type Vehicles (UTVs): Lawncare Training Guide 

    Grisso, Robert D. (Robert Dwight), 1956-; Perumpral, John V.; Ohanehi, Donatus Chukwubueze, 1949-; Goatley, Michael; Jamison, Kathleen; Sutphin, Cathy; Swafford, Dan; Estes, Carl (Virginia Cooperative Extension, 2012-09-10)
    Tips for promoting safe use of utility type vehicle or UTV.
  • Powered Hand Tools Safety: Lawncare Training Guide Powered hand tool care and safe use 

    Grisso, Robert D. (Robert Dwight), 1956-; Perumpral, John V.; Ohanehi, Donatus Chukwubueze, 1949-; Goatley, Michael; Jamison, Kathleen; Sutphin, Cathy; Swafford, Dan; Estes, Carl (Virginia Cooperative Extension, 2012-09-10)
    Safety tips for operating powered hand tools and gardening implements.
  • Guidelines for protecting youth workers: promote safe practices and protect youth workers 

    Grisso, Robert D. (Robert Dwight), 1956-; Perumpral, John V.; Ohanehi, Donatus Chukwubueze, 1949-; Goatley, Michael; Jamison, Kathleen; Sutphin, Cathy; Swafford, Dan; Estes, Carl (Virginia Cooperative Extension, 2012-09-10)
    The goal of this training guide is to reduce the number of accidents and related injuries among the youth workers serving the green industry by improving the work place safety. This training guide is prepared specifically ...
  • Lawn Care: Utility-Type Vehicle Safety 

    Grisso, Robert D. (Robert Dwight), 1956-; Perumpral, John V.; Ohanehi, Donatus Chukwubueze, 1949-; Goatley, Michael; Jamison, Kathleen; Sutphin, Cathy; Swafford, Dan; Estes, Carl (Virginia Cooperative Extension, 2013-11-05)
    Tips for promoting safe use of utility type vehicle or UTV.
  • Rotary Mowers Safety: Lawncare Training Guide Rotary mower maintenance and safe use 

    Grisso, Robert D. (Robert Dwight), 1956-; Perumpral, John V.; Ohanehi, Donatus Chukwubueze, 1949-; Goatley, Michael; Jamison, Kathleen; Sutphin, Cathy; Swafford, Dan; Estes, Carl (Virginia Cooperative Extension, 2012-09-10)
    Rotary lawn mower maintenance and safe use.
  • Droplet Chart / Selection Guide 

    Hipkins, Patricia A.; Grisso, Robert D. (Robert Dwight), 1956-; Wolf, Bob; Reed, Tom (Virginia Cooperative Extension, 2009-05-27)
    Instructions for choosing the correct droplet range for pest control application.
  • Lawn Care: Tractor Safety 

    Grisso, Robert D. (Robert Dwight), 1956-; Perumpral, John V.; Ohanehi, Donatus Chukwubueze, 1949-; Goatley, Michael; Jamison, Kathleen; Sutphin, Cathy; Swafford, Dan; Estes, Carl (Virginia Cooperative Extension, 2013-11-05)
    Tractor safety promoting the use of compact tractors.
  • Lawn Care: Rotary Mower Safety 

    Grisso, Robert D. (Robert Dwight), 1956-; Perumpral, John V.; Ohanehi, Donatus Chukwubueze, 1949-; Goatley, Michael; Jamison, Kathleen; Sutphin, Cathy; Swafford, Dan; Estes, Carl (Virginia Cooperative Extension, 2013-11-05)
    Lawn mower safety.
  • Lawn Care: Powered Hand Tool Safety 

    Grisso, Robert D. (Robert Dwight), 1956-; Perumpral, John V.; Ohanehi, Donatus Chukwubueze, 1949-; Goatley, Michael; Jamison, Kathleen; Sutphin, Cathy; Swafford, Dan; Estes, Carl (Virginia Cooperative Extension, 2013-11-06)
    Safety tips for operating powered hand tools.
  • Subterranean Termite Treatment Options 

    Miller, Dini M. (Virginia Cooperative Extension, 2010-03-05)
    This fact sheet gives an overview of all the currently available subterranean termite treatment methods. It includes general descriptions of treatment products, brand names, application techniques, and their unique features.

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