Impact of Intersection Control on Battery Electric Vehicle Energy Consumption
Rakha, Hesham A.
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Battery electric vehicle (BEV) sales have significantly increased in recent years. They have different energy consumption patterns compared to the fuel consumption patterns of internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs). This study quantified the impact of intersection control approaches—roundabout, traffic signal, and two-way stop controls—on BEVs’ energy consumption. The paper systematically investigates BEVs’ energy consumption patterns compared to the fuel consumption of ICEVs. The results indicate that BEVs’ energy consumption patterns are significantly different than ICEVs’ patterns. For example, for BEVs approaching a high-speed intersection, the roundabout was found to be the most energy-efficient intersection control, while the two-way stop sign was the least efficient. In contrast, for ICEVs, the two-way stop sign was the most fuel-efficient control, while the roundabout was the least efficient. Findings also indicate that the energy saving of traffic signal coordination was less significant for BEVs compared to the fuel consumption of ICEVs since more regenerative energy is produced when partial or poorly coordinated signal plans are implemented. The study confirms that BEV regenerative energy is a major factor in energy efficiency, and that BEVs recover different amounts of energy in different urban driving environments. The study suggests that new transportation facilities and control strategies should be designed to enhance BEVs’ energy efficiency, particularly in zero emission zones.