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dc.contributor.authorLi, Jianlinen
dc.contributor.authorLu, Yingqien
dc.contributor.authorYang, Tairanen
dc.contributor.authorGe, Dayangen
dc.contributor.authorWood, David L., IIIen
dc.contributor.authorLi, Zhengen
dc.identifier.otherUNSP 101081en
dc.description.abstractIt is critical to develop a low-cost and environmentally friendly system to manufacture and recycle lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) as the demand on LIBs keeps increasing dramatically. Conventional LIB cathodes are manufactured using N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone as the solvent, which is expensive, highly toxic, flammable, and energy intensive to produce and recover. Ideally, a close-loop industrial supply chain should be built, in which the batteries are manufactured, market harvested, and recycled with minimal external toxic solvent through the whole system. This work demonstrates a green and more sustainable manufacturing method for LIBs where no hazardous organic solvent is used during electrode manufacturing and recycling. The electrodes fabricated via water-based processing demonstrate comparable rate performance and cycle life to the ones from conventional solvent-based processing. Utilization of a water-soluble binder enables recovering the cathode compound from spent electrodes using water, which is successfully regenerated to deliver comparable electrochemical performance to the pristine one.en
dc.description.sponsorshipOffice of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) Applied Battery Research subprogram United States Department of Energy (DOE) [DE-AC05-00OR22725]; US Department of Energy (DOE)United States Department of Energy (DOE) [DE-AC05-00OR22725]en
dc.rightsCreative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 Internationalen
dc.titleWater-Based Electrode Manufacturing and Direct Recycling of Lithium-Ion Battery Electrodes-A Green and Sustainable Manufacturing Systemen
dc.typeArticle - Refereeden
dc.description.notesThis research at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, managed by UT Battelle, LLC, for the US Department of Energy under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725, was sponsored by the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) (Director: David Howell) Applied Battery Research subprogram (Program Manager: Peter Faguy). This manuscript has been authored by UT-Battelle, LLC, under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725 with the US Department of Energy (DOE). The US government retains and the publisher, by accepting the article for publication, acknowledges that the US government retains a nonexclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, worldwide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this manuscript, or allow others to do so, for US government purposes. DOE will provide public access to these results of federally sponsored research in accordance with the DOE Public Access Plan (

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Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International
License: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International