Browsing ETDs: Virginia Tech Electronic Theses and Dissertations by Department "Administration"
Now showing 1 - 14 of 14
Results Per Page
- An area realignment survey of Virginia Special Olympics, Inc.Wilson, Joseph Lloyd (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 1985)The purpose of this study was to gather responses from key Virginia Special Olympics' volunteers about their perceptions of several issues and concerns relating to the realignment of their current geographical areas of service. The study was done in two parts. Part one consisted of a survey which was sent to 222 key volunteers and three paid staff members. Of the 218 surveys which were able to be delivered, 170, or 78%, were completed and returned. Part two was a personal interview with each of the current twenty-one Area Coordinators. The results of the survey indicated that most volunteers attended on the average 3.5 meetings per month and averaged between 16 and 30 miles of travel per trip (one way). Most respondents felt that their areas' current budget was adequate to provide training programs and area games. They felt that changing the area boundaries would not adversely affect the support of the sponsors. The great majority of volunteers spend between $5.00 and $20.00 a month and few ask for reimbursement from Virginia Special Olympics. Most respondents felt that there were few problems between local, area, and state programs. A large majority of the respondents felt that there was a need for full-time paid Area Coordinators because most areas have between 76 and 225 participants and the duties of an Area Coordinator are considerable. The majority of the respondents said that their involvement would remain the same no matter what size their area was and that their current boundaries did not need to be realigned at this time. When the Area Coordinators were interviewed, they substantiated the results of the survey. However, three felt that their area really needed to be changed. only The rest felt that the current area boundaries were adequate for the present. At the Board of Directors meeting held June 22, 1985, the evaluator made a presentation of the findings of the surveys and interviews. After a lengthy discussion the Board voted to make changes in eight areas and to add four new areas.
- An assessment of the representativeness of elected and appointed school board members in selected school districts in Virginia and KentuckyPowell, William T. (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 1975)This study was undertaken to determine whether elected school boards are more representative of the populace than are appointed school boards. Since there have been debates for many years on whether elected school boards are more representative than appointed school boards, this study sought to reinforce the position that elected boards are more representative. For purposes of this paper, representativeness was defined as the replication in the school board of certain local demographic features, including occupation, level of family income, years of formal schooling, race, sex, place of work, age, and native born. The states selected for investigation were Kentucky, where all school boards are elected, and Virginia, where they are all appointed. Individual school districts within each state were classified according to both wealth and enrollment. The 1970 Bureau of the Census data were recorded for each district specifically for the demographic characteristics to be measured in this study. Composites of the individual districts according to both wealth and size were compiled in such a way as to preclude the identification of any one school district or school board. The school board data were compiled from information included in questionnaires submitted to randomly selected school boards in both states. The composite data of classifications by state, by low, medium, and high wealth districts, and by low, medium, and high enrollment districts were computerized and reported in a chi square statistical analysis. The chi square analysis demonstrated that, on the state level, both Virginia and Kentucky school board members were significantly different from their populations in all categories except in the native born category which did show a similarity between board members and their populations residing in the state of their birth. There were no discernible trends evidenced on the lesser composite levels according to either wealth or enrollment of the school districts, indicating that neither wealth nor enrollment of the school district made any difference in the composition of the school boards. Another comparison of school board membership and school district demography was included to denote the degree of representativeness as measured by a plus or minus ten percent difference between the two. These results indicated that on the state level, Kentucky had proportional representation in the race and native born categories. Virginia displayed proportional representation in only one category, native born. As a result of this study, typical school board members in both Virginia and Kentucky were found to be white collar workers, earning $15,000 or more in family income, college trained, white, male, working in the city or county of residence, between the ages of forty-five and fifty-nine, and born in their respective states.
- The constitutional rights and responsibilities of students and academic personnel in public community colleges as determined by federal and state court decisionsBond, Patricia Ryan (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 1976)The present study is an analysis of the constitutional rights and responsibilities of community college students and academic personnel as determined by federal and state court decisions. The first chapter is a brief overview of the development of the community college. It demonstrates that the dubious position of the community college in higher education contributed to slow acceptance by many of the constitutional rights of students and academic personnel on community college campuses. Chapter two covers the First Amendment rights of academic personnel: academic freedom, loyalty oaths, political activity, classroom activities. It explains that the United States Supreme Court cases of Keyishian, Pickering and Epperson are clear indications that state-employed teachers have complete freedom under the First Amendment to express their views, as long as this expression does not substantially disrupt the activities of the state or its agencies. Epperson guarantees scholarly choices under academic freedom. Chapter three discusses tenure and the need for due process in tenure decisions. The landmark United States Supreme Court cases reviewed here are Rowe and Sinderm. Although state-employed teachers have no right to a tenure system, they do have a right to due process in any tenure decision, if either an implicit or explicit tenure system exists. Teachers may also exercise their constitutional rights without fear of employment-related retribution. Chapter four is an analysis of the constitutional rights of students under the First, Fourth, Fifth, and Fourteenth Amendments. The judiciary overwhelmingly rejects "in loco parentis'' at the college level and views the student-college relationship as one based on constitutional principles. Tinker established that students retain their rights when they cross the school threshold. Papish showed that college student newspapers have complete freedom of expression, although college authorities may reasonably regulate the time, place, and manner of distribution. Fourth Amendment rights on the college campus are difficult to ascertain since no definitive Supreme Court ruling on search and seizure on a college campus has been handed down. Due process in school disciplinary proceedings is a firmly established prj_nciple in the United States today. The 1975 decisions in Wood and Goss clearly show this. Race has been accepted as a suspect category under the Fourteenth Amendment right of equal protection-- sex and appearance have not. Disparate treatment based on sex seems more likely to be declared unconstitutional than such treatment based on appearance. In chapter five the summary shows that academic personnel and students of community colleges are now accorded the same constitutional rights as their respective colleagues at four-year institutions, although community college administrators were slower to recognize many of those rights than were administrators of four-year institutions. It is recommended that community college administrators review all existing rules and procedures in light of the constitutional rights accorded citizens by the Federal Constitution.
- The development of a computerized costing and budgeting simulation model for higher educationLewis, Jack Monroe (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 1976)The purpose of the study was to develop and document a computerized costing and budgeting simulation model, the Costing and Budgeting System for Higher Education (CBS), which models the instructional setting in an institution of higher education. CBS is a management tool designed to assist administrators and planning committees in making rational decisions regarding the allocation and utilization of instructional resources. The model is limited to the calculation of direct costs of instruction. However, it does have a feature for calculating up to ninety-nine non-instructional budgets. The model may be driven with historical or projected data. The underlying objective in the creation of CBS was to design a model unmatched in flexibility and simplicity from the point of view of the user without compromising the ability of the model to represent the instructional setting. The most important achievements regarding flexibility were in relation to model inputs and outputs, while the major achievement regarding simplicity was achieving this type of flexibility without unduly complicating the procedures and directions for using the model. With regard to input flexibility, CBS allows for a wide range of input requirements. The user has a choice of running the model in three different and distinct operating modes. The three modes, historical, abridged projection and unabridged projection correspond· respectively to three levels of sophistication at which data may be supplied to the model. CBS is particularly characterized by its high degree of reporting flexibility in terms of the extent and variety of reports which may be requested. The user may select any combination of ten general academic reports and a summary budget report. All the general academic reports are printed in a matrix format which simplifies interpretation and greatly enhances the user's ability to compare data. The matrix format also allows large amounts of information to be reported in a relatively small amount of space. Further, the matrix reports may be called upon to display data representing only specified subsets of discipline program relationships through the model's clustering and configuration techniques. Finally, with regard to simplicity, CBS was designed to require a great deal of interaction between it and the user. This was accomplished by having the model lead the user through the cost study in progressive stages or phases. The most important feature in this regard is the model's ability to request for model input data. In each phase, CBS generates input sheets appropriate for the chosen operating mode requesting the specific data needed to complete that phase. The study includes user and technical documentation. The model is fully illustrated by means of hypothetical institutional data which includes computer generated data input sheets and an extensive array of report examples in the appendixes. Also included are recommendations for implementation, use, and further development of the model. Specific examples are included which demonstrate the utility of the model for unit cost analyses and for complex planning analysis.
- Dr. Woodrow W. Wilkerson: his life and work as state superintendent of public instruction in Virginia, 1960-1974Shufflebarger, Emmett Garnett (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 1975)The study concerned Dr. Woodrow W. Wilkerson who served as State Superintendent of Public Instruction for the Commonwealth of Virginia from August 16, 1960, to April 1, 1975. His length of service exceeded that of any of the thirteen previous superintendents in the 103-year history of public education in Virginia. The thesis of the study was that the Commonwealth of Virginia made strides toward improvement in the quality of education during the leadership of Dr. Wilkerson. A detailed biographical study of Dr. Wilkerson pointed out his unique personality influenced by all with whom he came in contact; his family, his church, his college professors, his educational associates, and others. The position of State Superintendent of Public Instruction was discussed with Dr. Wilkerson and six of his associates. The relationship of his position with the State Board of Education, the members of the General Assembly, the various governors, and the local division superintendents was presented. This composite description of the past fifteen years in public education in Virginia indicates how the position actually operated. The legal basis of the position of State Superintendent of Public Instruction was described. A procedure was established to identify and analyze changes which occurred in public education during Dr. Wilkerson's tenure. General measures of educational quality for the nation were identified. Specific educational goals in Virginia from various sources were established. These goals were classified and given priorities by a panel of experienced educators. A questionnaire was sent to eighteen carefully selected representatives of the Virginia educational community who ranked the goals according to their significance. Ten highest ranked goals were associated with measures of educational quality. A panel selected ten goals for which comparative educational data might be available. A collection of data for the years 1960 through 1974 in Virginia and the nation was made. In many cases comparable data were not available. A determination of the degree of success on the ten measures of quality was made. The questionnaire also indicated that the major educational goal in Virginia during Dr. Wilkerson's tenure was the standards of quality program. Dr. Wilkerson and close associates were interviewed concerning the development and implementation of the important program. Aspects of the program with which Dr. Wilkerson was involved were discussed in detail. An evaluation of the program and its effectiveness was presented. Dr. Wilkerson's accomplishments were influenced by the many issues of his time, by the personalities that he encountered, and by the limitations placed upon him by various political and economic conditions. Dr. Wilkerson and his unique personality had a marked effect upon public education in Virginia. The Commonwealth of Virginia made progress in the improvement in the quality of education during the leadership of Dr. Woodrow W. Wilkerson as State Superintendent of Public Instruction.
- Education: Public Policy and the American IndianScheirbeck, Helen Maynor (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 1980)A classic contradiction confronts the American Indian in United States society, and it surrounds the subject of public education for American Indian students. To some undefined extent, Indian individuals, families, and tribes value the idea of assimilation into the broader society. Simultaneously, however, they also value the autonomy and special, separate identity derived from their "Indian-ness." The price of assimilation, it appears, is a partial loss of identity, Indian philosophy and values. The price of preserving Indian-ness, similarly, presumably is a loss of the various material gains and Americanization attributed to assimilation. Individuals, families, and tribes respond differently to this dilemma. Naturally, therefore, a policy decision by the federal government or a state government affecting the dilemma is subject immediately to mixed reactions among the diverse groups of American Indians… It is held that the present unsatisfactory condition of the American Indian population in the United States, accordingly, is a consequence of this combination: Indian powerlessness, inconstant and inconsistent public policy, and actions by government not consistent with policy.
- The effects of two breathing patterns on selected physiological parameters during a simulated 200 yard freestyle in male swimmersBell, George Hamilton (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 1978)Ten male adolescent and young adult swimmers were examined to determine the effects of two breathing patterns on selected physiological parameters during a simulated 200-yard freestyle swim. Specifically, a comparison of oxygen uptake, blood lactic acid, ventilation and the respiratory exchange ratio responses to a timed swim were made under two experimental breathing conditions. The intensity of the experimental trials was maintained at approximately 95% of the subjects' maximal workload to induce maximal effort. The validity of capillary blood samples for the use of micro-determination of blood lactic acid was established prior to the preliminary and experimental trials. Maximal physiological parameters for each subject were then obtained during the Preliminary Test using a maximal intermittent tethered swimming test. The experimental phase of the study consisted of four 110 sec swims designed to simulate competitive 200-yard freestyle swimming. Two swims were conducted under Condition 1, wherein the subject swam breathing once every arm cycle. The remaining two swims were under Condition 2, wherein the subject swam breathing every alternate arm cycle. Using Pearson product-moment correlation to determine within condition reliability for each dependent variable, it was found that oxygen uptake, blood lactic acid and ventilation were reliable. Under Condition 1, the respiratory exchange ratio was also found to be reliable, however, under Condition 2, the reliability coefficient was considered unacceptable. Therefore, the respiratory exchange ratio was excluded from further analyses. Hotelling's T² was employed on the linear combination of oxygen uptake, ventilation, and blood lactic acid between conditions. This analysis indicated a significant difference (p<.05) between conditions. Simultaneous confidence intervals indicated that oxygen uptake, blood lactic acid, and ventilation were the variables causing the difference. Simple linear and stepwise regression were employed to determine the extent to which the dependent variables contributed to the V̇O₂ (ml/kg·min⁻¹) in each experimental condition. Under Condition 1, the respiratory exchange ratio was found to be closely associated with the V̇O₂ in that condition. Under Condition 2, ventilation was found to be most closely associated with the lower V̇O₂ observed in this condition. It was deemed important to determine the extent to which changes between conditions in the dependent variables contributed to changes in the V̇O₂ (ml/kg·min⁻¹) between conditions. It was found that the changes in ventilation contributed only a small portion to the changes in V̇O₂ between conditions, which indicated that something other than the dependent variables was associated with the changes in V̇O₂ between conditions. During training and performance, the evidence suggests that under a given workload, greater metabolic capacity was required when breathing every stroke. In addition, higher intensities of work could be tolerated when breathing was done only during alternate strokes.
- Evaluation of a curriculum model for the biological sciencesWilfong, Richard T. (Virginia Tech, 1974)A study to determine the effects of a new curriculum model for the biological sciences based on practical application of material, student research, and professional activities, all designed to promote student interest and involvement in course content, was initiated as a supplement to an existing introductory agronomy course during the Fall Quarter, 1973, at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. Based on a pilot program established by the researcher at another institution, the treatment included investigation of research procedures, student utilization of the greenhouse and advanced research equipment, implementation of experimental designs, sampling techniques, and seminars. It was hypothesized that students exposed to the model would have better grades, higher class attendance, and improved attitudes toward the course and toward the agriculture profession than students who were not exposed to the model. Attitudes were determined by answers given on an attitude questionnaire which was developed by the researcher. Differences in attitudes, grades, and attendance between the two groups were analyzed for significance by a multivariate ANOVA. Results of this ANOVA showed that no significant differences existed at the .05 level for grades, attendance, and attitudes between the two groups. A factor analysis of the questionnaire indicated that various attitudes were tested, rather than a single attitude. However, resultant scores for five general attitudes believed to be determined by the questionnaire indicated that no differences in attitudes existed between the two groups. As a result of this study, it was concluded that the model, as implemented, had no effect on grades, class attendance, or attitudes. However, experience gained as a result of this study led to several major recommendations for refinements which would improve the validity and reliability of future, similar studies.
- Formal and informal approaches to school climate improvement: a descriptive field studySymons, William C. (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 1984)Recently a variety of national reports have been completed which call for school reform. Additionally, there has been an abundance of research which attempts to identify the characteristics of effective schools. Throughout the literature on school reform and effectiveness, school climate is consistently identified as an important factor in effective schools. However, questions concerning how schools improve their climate and what the effects and obstacles of such efforts are remain unanswered. School climate improvement efforts tend to fall into two major categories which can be referred to as either formal systematic approaches or informal non-systematic approaches. Formal approaches exist where the developer of the approach states specific steps and procedures which are followed by a school to improve its climate. Informal approaches are also being used by schools where the principal and staff identify and implement various actions which are undertaken to improve the school's climate for learning. This study identified and described both a formal and an informal approach to school climate and determined the effects and obstacles encountered with each approach. Two secondary schools using each type of approach were studied and compared. The procedures and activities used by each of the four schools under study were described. The outcomes and obstacles encountered in each school's climate improvement process were identified. The findings of the study were that all four schools in the study had positive outcomes regardless of the approach used. Common obstacles occurred in all four schools. They included lack of staff time to address school concerns, some staff did not support the school's efforts and students and parents were slow to respond positively to the staff's efforts.
- A procedure for evaluating VISTA pre-service trainingZollicoffer, Hosea (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 1977)Purpose of the Study The primary purpose of the study was to develop a procedure for evaluating pre-service training programs for VISTA trainees. Secondary purposes of the study were to: 1. Identify the training styles of a group of VISTA trainers in Region II. 2. Determine the success of several groups of VISTA trainees in reaching the desired training objectives. 3. Determine whether the training style of the VISTA trainers affected the success of the VISTA trainees in reaching the desired training objectives. 4. Compare the VISTA_ trainers' perceptions of their training style with a team of expert observers' judgment of the training style. of the VISTA trainers. Methodology The data were collected in January 1976 in New York City and Buffalo, New York. Six VISTA trainers and fifty-seven VISTA trainees participated in the study. Each VISTA trainer was video taped delivering a two hour training session on communications to VISTA trainees in small groups. Pre-tests were administered to the trainees before the training and post-tests were administered to the trainees after the training session to determine the number of trainees who were successful in reaching the desired training objectives. A characteristic profile was established on each VISTA trainer and trainee by requesting them to complete a characteristic profile form. At the conclusion of the training session, VISTA trainers were asked to identify their training style using the guidelines of the Modified Cheffers Adaptation or Flanders lnteraction Analysis System (MCAFIAS). The MCAFIAS was a modification of the Cheffers Adaptation of Flanders Interaction Analysis System (CAFIAS). A team of expert observers was trained in the use of the MCAFIAS. The expert observers identified the training styles of the.VISTA trainers by analyzing the training style of each VISTA trainer in the two hour video taped training session, using the guidelines of MCAFIAS. Findings Research Question One: Are there differences in the training styles of VISTA trainers? The team of expert observers identified five different training styles of the six VISTA trainers. They were the high indirective, moderate indirective, low indirective, low directive, and nondirective. Research Question Two: How successful are VISTA trainees in reaching title desired objectives in training classes? The results of the pre-test administered to each group of VISTA trainees before the training session and the post-test-after the training session indicated that thirty-five out of fifty-seven VISTA trainees (61.4 percent) were successful in reaching the desired objectives. Research Question Three: Does the training style of the VISTA trainers affect the success of the VISTA trainees in reaching the desired objectives? The comparison between the training style of the VISTA trainer identified by the team of expert observers and the percentages of trainees successful in reaching the desired training. objectives indicated that the non-directive, low directive, and high indirective training styles were the least effective training styles. The low indirective training style was moderately effective. The most effective was the moderate indirective training style. Research Question Four: Is there a difference between the trainer's perception of his training style and the judgment of a team of expert observers' of his style? The comparison between the trainers' perception of their training styles and the team of expert observers' judgment of training style of the trainers indicated that five of six VISTA trainers' perceptions of their training styles were different from the team of expert observers' judgment of their training styles. Conclusions 1. Some VISTA trainers and trainees object to participating in research studies. 2. Most of ·the training styles of the VISTA trainers fell into one of the indirective training styles. 3. VISTA trainees are being given the kind of learning experience that enables them to reach the desired training objectives as outlined by VISTA managers and executives. 4. The training style of the VISTA trainers affects the success of the VISTA trainees in.reaching the.desired training objectives. 5. The VISTA trainer's ethnic background and education have little effect on the success of the trainees in reaching 'the desired training objectives since the most effective trainers had a group different from their own ethnic background 6. Most VISTA trainers are unable to identify their own training styles. 7. The high indirective training style is perceived by m:ost trainers as the most desirable training style.
- The relationship between internal-external locus of control and smoking behavior among university students in the state of VirginiaEast, Virginia Lee (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 1977)This study investigated the relationship between Internal-External Locus of Control and smoking behavior among university students in the State of Virginia. It was hypothesized that smokers would have higher I-E scores than exsmokers and nonsmokers; heavy female smokers would have higher I-E scores than male heavy smokers; light female smokers would have higher I-E scores than male light smokers; heavy female-male smokers would have higher I-E scores than female-male light smokers; smokers not convinced by the Surgeon General's Report will have higher I-E scores than smokers who were convinced; smokers convinced by the Surgeon General's Report and stopped smoking will have lower I-E scores than smokers convinced and continuing to smoke; younger university students would have higher I-E scores than older students; students selecting the education curriculum would have higher I-E scores than students selecting other curriculum areas; and female university students would have higher I-E scores than male university students. Five-hundred-fifteen female and male undergraduate students in the universities of Virginia were administered an information questionnaire and Rotter's Social Opinion Questionnaire. The information smoking questionnaire contained the following seven questions: sex of subject, age, curriculum, grade level, present smoking status, future behavior concerning smoking, and considering the Surgeon General's Report as credible information. Rotter's Social Opinion Questionnaire included twenty-nine questions. The selection of answers was determined by a pair of alternatives lettered 1 or 2 (yes or no) which the students strongly believed to be the case as far as they were concerned. The test was scored in the direction of External Control. The higher the score, the more Externally oriented was the subject. While all the hypotheses were not supported, the results did indicate that female heavy smokers scored significantly more External than male heavy smokers; older university students regardless of sex scored significantly more Internal than younger university students; female and male students in the universities of Virginia are knowledgeable of the linkage of smoking and disease as indicated by their almost unanimous acceptance of the Surgeon General's Report as credible information. Female university students scored significantly higher on the I-E scale than males in several variables. A significant main effect was found for sex of students. There was a significant interaction found between sex and smoking groups with a significant difference found between heavy female smokers versus male heavy smokers. A significant main effect was found for age and sex. Smokers regardless of sex did not score significantly higher than. nonsmokers and exsmokers. Female light smokers did not score significantly higher than male light smokers. Smokers convinced by the Surgeon General's Report and stopped smoking did not score significantly lower than smokers convinced and continued to smoke. There were no interactions found to be significant between sex and credibility of Surgeon General's Report, future smoking plans, and smoking groups.
- A study of legal information needs of public higher education administrators in the District of ColumbiaGreen, John Edward Milton (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 1975)This study was concerned with the assessment and analysis of legal information needs of the major administrators in the public higher education system of the District of Columbia. The study further sought to provide a model Request for Proposal (RFP) with a performance specification suitable for inclusion in a public contract which ultimately would result in a study and handbook of the identified legal aspects. The administrators' needs and desires for legal information were assessed through a questionnaire survey. The questionnaire was divided into three section emphasizing: a. What information was generally known. b. What additional information was needed. c. What information was desired. Results of the survey indicated that there was a generally low awareness of the more popular aspects of college and university law. However, the administrators appeared to be generally aware of the specific legal aspects pertaining to the instruction or classroom activity. Most of the administrators felt that they were not equipped with sufficient legal information to make decisions on matters with legal implication that could withstand a challenge in court. Constitutional rights, employment contracting, fiscal administration, and policy conflicts were viewed as the most frequent problem areas, while accreditation and tenure problems were viewed as the least frequent. The survey also resulted in a priority listing of legal topics for which additional information was desired. The survey results were used as a basis for developing a draft outline of legal information topics and sub-topics for inclusion in a study and handbook. A panel of experts in higher education administration and law was effective in producing a final qualified outline. Using the final topic outline, a draft model RFP, containing a performance specification, was designed. A second panel, comprised of experts in contracting, reviewed, modified and validated the model RFP as being usable to actually obtain the required services through a public contract, to conduct a study and produce a handbook with emphasis upon the District of Columbia public higher education system. It was concluded that: a. Administrators of the public colleges in the District of Columbia do want and need additional legal information. b. Administrators of the public colleges in the District of Columbia can specifically identify their needs and desires for legal information. c. Expressed or identified legal information needs can be converted into a public contract performance specification. Key recommendations for further study included the development of objective evaluation criteria applicable to performance contracts and the actualization of the study results by the appropriate offices of the District of Columbia Government.
- A study of the functions of school boards in the educational system of the Roman Catholic Church in the United StatesSheehan, Lourdes (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 1981)Until the era of Vatican Council II in the mid-1960’s, Catholic elementary and secondary schools functioned within a clearly established authority structure. Parochial schools operated under the authority of the pastor of the parish and diocesan or central schools under that of the bishop of the diocese or his priest delegate. Vatican Council II called for active lay participation in the life of the church and encouraged bishops to consult with the laity and value their contributions to the church. However, there is no evidence that the decrees of this Council altered the authority structure of the church. The Roman Catholic church is a hierarchical organization in which the bishop has final authority within his diocese. In many states, he also has complete civil authority in the tenure of church property. Following Vatican Council II, the proponents of a renewal Catholic school board movement urged that these boards be constituted as jurisdictional with complete authority for Catholic schools. The model for these boards was based on the public school board model. Since the authority structure of the Roman Catholic church is significantly different from that of the state which receives its authority from the people, the organizational systems including boards of education for Catholic and public schools must reflect these different authority sources. This dissertation studies the authority structure of the Roman Catholic church, the reasons for the development of a separate Catholic school system in the United States, the development of central Catholic high schools, and the Catholic school board movement before and after Vatican Council II. It concludes by making recommendations for alternative models for reorganizing non-private Catholic schools within the authority structure of the church and for constituting diocesan and local school boards in a manner which gives parents a voice in the operation of their children's schools.
- Training school staffs in concepts of participatory management in the Fairfax County public schools: an evaluation studyByers, Larry (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 1984)The Fairfax County, Virginia, Public Schools made a commitment in 1981 to involve teacher leaders and principals in all schools in the improvement of school-based facilitation of instruction. It was decided that this school-based management emphasis would best be achieved through a training program that focused on concepts of participatory management. Therefore, beginning in the fall of 1981 (and for three successive semesters), principals, assistant principals, department chairpersons, and team leaders were selected to participate in a one-semester university credit course entitled “Distributed Management of Instructional Environments." The course provided a forum for the presentation of alternative decision-making models to the instructional leadership within each school. Leadership theories based on the writings of Herzberg, Maslow, Levinson, et al., and models such as Likert's linking-pin structure and Hersey and Blanchard's situational leadership were presented in large group sessions followed by small group discussions. Each school was required to prepare a planning document detailing the management processes and structures to be used to facilitate instruction. This study evaluates the success of the program in achieving its objectives. The CIPP evaluation model proposed by Stufflebeam provided the overall design for the study.