Browsing Outreach Publications, Powell River Project by Title
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- The Appalachian Regional Reforestation InitiativeAngel, Patrick N.; Davis, Vic; Burger, James A.; Graves, Don; Zipper, Carl E. (Appalachian Regional Reforestation Initiative, 2007-07-18)The Appalachian Regional Reforestation Initiative (ARRI) is a cooperative effort by the States of the Appalachian Region with the Office of Surface Mining to encourage restoration of high quality forests on reclaimed coal mines in the eastern USA. ARRI's goals are to communicate and encourage mine reforestation practices that 1) plant more high-value hardwood trees on reclaimed coal mined lands in Appalachia; 2) increase the survival rates and growth rates of planted trees; and 3) expedite the establishment of forest habitat through natural succession. These goals can be achieved when mines are reclaimed using the Forestry Reclamation Approach (FRA).
- Coal-resource Contracting Terms for Productive Postmining ForestsBratsch, Tony (Virginia Cooperative Extension, 2010-02-26)Many coal resource owners also own the overlying land surface; such owners negotiate contracts with mining firms as a way to generate revenue. Here, we suggest contracting terms that can be offered when the resource owner desires a productive forest on the land surface that can serve as an economic asset after mining.
- Conversion of Sericea Lespedeza-dominant Vegetation to Quality Forages for Livestock UseWolf, Dale D.; Fike, John H.; Zipper, Carl E. (Virginia Cooperative Extension, 2010-09-01)The purpose of this publication is to describe recommended strategies for converting the sericea-dominant vegetation typically found on older surface-mined benches to more favorable forages that can be more effectively utilized by livestock.
- Conversion of Sericea Lespedeza-Dominant Vegetation to Quality Forages for Livestock UseWolf, Dale D.; Fike, John H.; Zipper, Carl E. (Virginia Cooperative Extension, 2018-03-15)Discusses sericea lespedeza as a reclamation species for strip mines. Also discusses a two-year program for suppression of this species and the introduction of an improved pasture species mix.
- Creation and Management of Productive MinesoilsDaniels, W. Lee; Zipper, Carl E. (Virginia Cooperative Extension, 2010-08-27)Existing minesoils tend to be quite variable in the field, but they can be managed effectively once their chemical and physical properties have been correctly determined. Soil testing procedures are useful for comparing overburden materials for use as minesoils, but they cannot be interpreted with the same degree of accuracy as natural soils.
- Enhancing Wildlife Habitat on Reclaimed Mine LandsCarrozzino, Amy L.; Stauffer, Dean F.; Haas, Carola A.; Zipper, Carl E. (Virginia Cooperative Extension, 2011-03-30)This publication compares mined-land communities with wildlife communities in nearby non-mined forests to better understand how mining and reclamation practices affect wildlife. Here, as an outcome of that study and considering prior research, we provide recommendations for reclamation practices to enhance use of mined land by wildlife.
- Enhancing Wildlife Habitat on Reclaimed Mine LandsCarrozzino, Amy L.; Haas, Carola A.; Stauffer, Dean F.; Zipper, Carl E. (Virginia Cooperative Extension, 2018-03-15)Discusses ways to improve wildlife habitat on reclaimed mine lands as well as methods used for monitoring wildlife.
- Establishing Groundcover for Forested Postmining Land UsesBurger, James A.; Zipper, Carl E.; Skousen, Jeffrey G. (Virginia Cooperative Extension, 2010-02-19)Revegetating mined lands with grasses and legumes (groundcover) is essential to mine reclamation under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act (SMCRA). This publication describes how mining firms can establish groundcover while reclaiming land to forested, postmining land uses.
- Establishing Groundcover for Forested Postmining Land UsesBurger, James A.; Skousen, Jeffrey G.; Zipper, Carl E. (Virginia Cooperative Extension, 2018-03-15)Discusses ways to establish ground cover plants in coal mined lands planned as forests.
- Establishing Native Trees on Legacy Surface MinesBurger, James A.; Zipper, Carl E.; Angel, Patrick N.; Hall, Nathan; Skousen, Jeffrey G.; Barton, Christopher D.; Eggerud, Scott (Appalachian Regional Reforestation Initiative, 2013-11)More than one million acres have been surface mined for coal in Appalachia. Today, much of this land is unmanaged, unproductive, and covered with non-native plants. Establishing productive forests on such lands will aid restoration of ecosystem services provided by forests – services such as watershed protection, water quality enhancement, carbon storage and native wildlife habitat -- and will enable mined lands to produce valued products such as commercial timber. This Advisory describes practices for establishing native forest trees on lands that were surface mined for coal and reclaimed to meet legal standards, and where the mine operator no longer has any legal responsibilities (“legacy surface mines,” Photo 1). These lands often differ from their pre-mining condition with respect to topography, soils, water resource influences, and vegetation.
- Establishing Riparian Woody Vegetation for Constructed Streams Using the Forestry Reclamation ApproachZipper, Carl E.; Krenz, Robert J.; Sweeten, Sara E.; Agouridis, Carmen T.; Barton, Christopher D.; Angel, Patrick N. (Appalachian Regional Reforestation Initiative, 2018-03)Construction and renovation of streams and riparian corridors on mined lands have become common activities in Appalachia. Surface mining for coal can disturb ephemeral and intermittent streams, and may disturb permanent streams in some cases. Under the Clean Water Act, operations that fill or otherwise disturb streams must perform compensatory mitigation. Scientific studies have identified beneficial effects of woody vegetation (trees and shrubs) in riparian areas of streams on mined areas and elsewhere. This advisory describes the reasons for establishing woody vegetation in constructed streams’ riparian areas, and describes proper methods for mine sites.
- Establishment and Maintenance of Quality Turfgrass on Surface-Mined LandGoatley, Michael; Hall, John R.; Zipper, Carl E. (Virginia Cooperative Extension, 2018-03-15)Discusses how to establish turf grass on surface-mined land, at locations planned for home development or recreational use.
- Establishment and maintenance of quality turfgrass on surface-mined landHall, John R. (Virginia Cooperative Extension, 1992)Provides recommendations for successful turfgrass establishment and maintenance on reclaimed surface-mined land.
- Establishment and Maintenance of Quality Turfgrass on Surface-Mined LandHall, John R.; Goatley, Michael; Zipper, Carl E. (Virginia Cooperative Extension, 2010-02-12)Provides recommendations for successful turfgrass establishment and maintenance on land that was previously surface-mined.
- Estimation of Southwest Virginia coal reservesWestman, Erik C.; Haycocks, Christopher; Zipper, Carl E. (Virginia Cooperative Extension, 2000)Coal mining in Virginia's Richmond basin was the first recorded production in the United States (Henderson, 1985). Since that production, more than 2.1 billion tons of coal have been extracted from three primary areas within the state: the Richmond basin, the Valley coal fields, and the Southwest Virginia coal field (Brown et al., 1952; VCCER, 1998).
- The Forestry Reclamation ApproachBurger, James A.; Graves, Don; Angel, Patrick N.; Davis, Vic; Zipper, Carl E. (Appalachian Regional Reforestation Initiative, 2007-07-18)The Forestry Reclamation Approach (FRA) is a method for reclaiming coal-mined land to forest under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act (SMCRA). The FRA is based on knowledge gained from both scientific research and experience (Photo 1). The FRA can achieve costeffective regulatory compliance for coal operators while creating productive forests that generate value for their owners and provide watershed protection, wildlife habitat, and other environmental services. The purpose of this Advisory is to describe the FRA, which is considered by state mining agencies and US Office of Surface Mining to be an appropriate and desirable method for reclaiming coal-mined land to support forested land uses under SMCRA (Angel and others, 2005). The FRA is also supported by members of the ARRI’s academic team, which is drawn from Universities in nine states, and by other groups and agencies.
- The Forestry Reclamation Approach: An Essential Tool for Controlling Invasive Exotic Plants on Active Mine SitesZipper, Carl E.; Angel, Patrick N.; Adams, Mary Beth; Sanderson, Tyler; Sena, Kenton; Barton, Christopher D.; Agouridis, Carmen T. (Appalachian Regional Reforestation Initiative, 2019-05)Mining companies use the Forestry Reclamation Approach (FRA) when reclaiming mined land with the aim of establishing functional forests as a post- mining land use. Invasive exotic plant species (IES) can interfere with successful reforestation. Thus, reclamation of active mine sites should aim to prevent colonization of IES plants if native forest restoration is the end goal. Once IES become established, they are difficult to eradicate and can potentially delay bond release. Therefore, it is best to manage for IES before they become established. Following the FRA is a good way to accomplish this. In Advisory No. 16 (Adams et al. 2019), the problems of IES on legacy and abandoned mine sites were described, along with detailed descriptions of common IES plants and control measures. This Advisory (No. 17) explains the issues related to IES plants on active mine sites and presents guidance on controlling IES to ensure successful reforestation.
- Foundations for Housing on Reclaimed Mined LandsKrebs, Robert Dixon; Zipper, Carl E. (Virginia Cooperative Extension, 2009-09-30)This bulletin summarizes potential problems associated with housing built on recontoured, reclaimed land and suggests methods for dealing with those problems. Special attention is given to the behavior of valley fills and to precautions that should be taken when building in reclaimed areas. Various types of foundations for light structures are considered in relation to their suitability for land that may settle.