Discovery and dissemination of new knowledge in food science: Analytical methods for quantification of polyphenols and amino acids in fruits and the use of mobile phone-based instructional technology in food science education
MetadataShow full item record
The discovery and dissemination of new knowledge are essential in food science. To advance our understanding of fruit chemistry, analytical methods were compared and applied. Polyphenols are secondary metabolites in fruits of particular importance in food science, as they contribute to the sensory attributes and health benefits of the products. Evaluation of common analytical methods for the quantification of polyphenols, including the Folin-Ciocalteu (F-C), Lowenthal permanganate (L-P), 4-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde (DMAC) and the bovine serum albumin (BSA) precipitation methods, was conducted using analytical method validation procedures. The F-C method was not specific to polyphenols, and the L-P method had the widest working range but lacked accuracy. The DMAC method was the most specific to flavanols, and the BSA method was not suitable for quantification of smaller flavanols. Quantitative performance of these four methods was evaluated using a broad range of fruit-derived samples. Variation in quantitative results obtained using these four methods was explained by differences in polyphenol and matrix composition of these samples and differences in operating principles of the methods. The reactivity of individual polyphenol compounds (catechin, epicatechin, PC B2, PC pentamer, chlorogenic acid, phloretin, and quercetin) to the polyphenol and flavanol quantification results using Prussian blue (P-B), F-C, DMAC and BSA precipitation methods were also assessed and determined to differ by up to thirteen-fold, depending on the assay. Furthermore, the contribution and interactions of polyphenol compounds (catechin, PC B2, and chlorogenic acid) and potentially interfering compounds likely to be found in fruit and fruit products (ascorbic acid, glucose, and SO2) to the quantitative results of these methods were evaluated using a full factorial design. Significant interactions among polyphenol compounds, and among the interfering compounds were found. The standardized coefficient (β) for all factors and interactions of polyphenol compounds varied from 0.347 to 129, and from near 0 to -46.8 for all factors and interactions of interfering compounds. Our findings indicate that the choice of standards, polyphenol and matrix composition of the sample may cause disparity among the quantitative results of these methods. Amino acids in apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) juice not only influence the quality of fermented cider through fermentation kinetics but also impact the flavor of the cider through yeast metabolism. Due to recent advances in analytical instrumentation, amino acids profiles in apple juice were determined much faster and more accurately than by previously applied methods. Twenty amino acids were quantified by UPLC-PDA in juices from 13 apple cultivars grown in Virginia. The relative amino acid profile was significantly different among the apple juices evaluated. The total amino acid concentration ranged from 18 mg/L in Blacktwig juice to 57 mg/L in Enterprise juice. L-Asparagine, L-aspartic acid and L-glutamine are the principal amino acids observed in most apple juices. These results will inform future research on yeast metabolism and nitrogen management during cider fermentation. To better disseminate knowledge gained through research to the next generation of food scientists, the effectiveness of new instructional technology—a cellphone-based personal response system—in food science education was evaluated. Students' academic performance was improved by the incorporation of this technology into lectures, and its use was well perceived by the students (easy to use and positively impacted their learning). This finding contributes to the scholarship of teaching and learning in food science by providing useful insight into the potential for application of such tools with improved student engagement and learning outcomes. Advances in food chemistry research will enable the development of value-added food products, and the pedagogical advancement in food science education will better convey new and existing knowledge to students, who will apply this knowledge to promote a safe and nutritious food supply that enhances human health and increases the value of specialty crops.
- Doctoral Dissertations