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dc.contributor.authorWalsh, Jessica C.en
dc.contributor.authorPendray, Jane E.en
dc.contributor.authorGodwin, Sean C.en
dc.contributor.authorArtelle, Kyle A.en
dc.contributor.authorKindsvater, Holly K.en
dc.contributor.authorField, Rachel D.en
dc.contributor.authorHarding, Jennifer N.en
dc.contributor.authorSwain, Noel R.en
dc.contributor.authorReynolds, John D.en
dc.description.abstractPacific salmon influence temperate terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems through the dispersal of marine-derived nutrients and ecosystem engineering of stream beds when spawning. They also support large fisheries, particularly along the west coast of North America. We provide a comprehensive synthesis of relationships between the densities of Pacific salmon and terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, summarize the direction, shape, and magnitude of these relationships, and identify possible ecosystem-based management indicators and benchmarks. We found 31 studies that provided 172 relationships between salmon density (or salmon abundance) and species abundance, species diversity, food provisioning, individual growth, concentration of marine-derived isotopes, nutrient enhancement, phenology, and several other ecological responses. The most common published relationship was between salmon density and marine-derived isotopes (40%), whereas very few relationships quantified ecosystem-level responses (5%). Only 13% of all relationships tended to reach an asymptote (i.e., a saturating response) as salmon densities increased. The number of salmon killed by bears and the change in biomass of different stream invertebrate taxa between spawning and nonspawning seasons were relationships that usually reached saturation. Approximately 46% of all relationships were best described with linear or curved nonasymptotic models, indicating a lack of saturation. In contrast, 41% of data sets showed no relationship with salmon density or abundance, including many of the relationships with stream invertebrate and biofilm biomass density, marine-derived isotope concentrations, or vegetation density. Bears required the highest densities of salmon to reach their maximum observed food consumption (i.e., 9.2 kg/m(2)to reach the 90% threshold of the relationship's asymptote), followed by freshwater fish abundance (90% threshold = 7.3 kg/m(2)of salmon). Although the effects of salmon density on ecosystems are highly varied, it appears that several of these relationships, such as bear food consumption, could be used to develop indicators and benchmarks for ecosystem-based fisheries management.en
dc.description.sponsorshipNatural Sciences and Engineering Research CouncilNatural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada; Tom Buell Endowment Fund; British Columbia Leading Edge Foundation; Pacific Salmon Foundationen
dc.rightsCreative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 Internationalen
dc.subjectecological benchmarken
dc.subjectecological indicatoren
dc.subjectecological thresholden
dc.subjectecosystem engineeringen
dc.subjectecosystem-based managementen
dc.subjectmarine-derived nutrienten
dc.subjectnutrient cyclingen
dc.subjectnutrient subsidyen
dc.subjectPacific salmonen
dc.titleRelationships between Pacific salmon and aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems: implications for ecosystem-based managementen
dc.typeArticle - Refereeden
dc.contributor.departmentFish and Wildlife Conservationen
dc.description.notesThis research was funded by Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council Discovery Grants to JDR, as well as Tom Buell Endowment Fund, supported by the British Columbia Leading Edge Foundation and the Pacific Salmon Foundation. JCW and JDR are joint first authors, who designed the study and oversaw the writing of the paper. JCW and JEP conducted literature review, and JCW did the analyses. Other authors contributed to the research question and concepts, initial data collection, analysis, and writing. We appreciate comments from Doug Braun, Joel Harding and three reviewers.en

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Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International
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