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dc.contributor.authorHuang, Yanen
dc.date.accessioned2021-01-12T09:00:50Zen
dc.date.available2021-01-12T09:00:50Zen
dc.date.issued2021-01-11en
dc.identifier.othervt_gsexam:28965en
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10919/101844en
dc.description.abstractResource allocation in modern wireless networks is constrained by increasingly stringent real-time requirements. Such real-time requirements typically come from, among others, the short coherence time on a wireless channel, the small time resolution for resource allocation in OFDM-based radio frame structure, or the low-latency requirements from delay-sensitive applications. An optimal resource allocation solution is useful only if it can be determined and applied to the network entities within its expected time. For today's wireless networks such as 5G NR, such expected time (or real-time requirement) can be as low as 1 ms or even 100 μs. Most of the existing resource optimization solutions to wireless networks do not ex- plicitly take real-time requirement as a constraint when developing solutions. In fact, the mainstream of research works relies on the asymptotic complexity analysis for designing so- lution algorithms. Asymptotic complexity analysis is only concerned with the growth of its computational complexity as the input size increases (as in the big-O notation). It cannot capture the real-time requirement that is measured in wall-clock time. As a result, existing approaches such as exact or approximate optimization techniques from operations research are usually not useful in wireless networks in the field. Similarly, many problem-specific heuristic solutions with polynomial-time asymptotic complexities may suffer from a similar fate, if their complexities are not tested in actual wall-clock time. To address the limitations of existing approaches, this dissertation presents novel real- time solution designs to two types of optimization problems in wireless networks: i) prob- lems that have closed-form mathematical models, and ii) problems that cannot be modeled in closed-form. For the first type of problems, we propose a novel approach that consists of (i) problem decomposition, which breaks an original optimization problem into a large number of small and independent sub-problems, (ii) search intensification, which identifies the most promising problem sub-space and selects a small set of sub-problems to match the available GPU processing cores, and (iii) GPU-based large-scale parallel processing, which solves the selected sub-problems in parallel and finds a near-optimal solution to the original problem. The efficacy of this approach has been illustrated by our solutions to the following two problems. • Real-Time Scheduling to Achieve Fair LTE/Wi-Fi Coexistence: We investi- gate a resource optimization problem for the fair coexistence between LTE and Wi-Fi in the unlicensed spectrum. The real-time requirement for finding the optimal channel division and LTE resource allocation solution is on 1 ms time scale. This problem involves the optimal division of transmission time for LTE and Wi-Fi across multi- ple unlicensed bands, and the resource allocation among LTE users within the LTE's "ON" periods. We formulate this optimization problem as a mixed-integer linear pro- gram and prove its NP-hardness. Then by exploiting the unique problem structure, we propose a real-time solution design that is based on problem decomposition and GPU-based parallel processing techniques. Results from an implementation on the NVIDIA GPU/CUDA platform demonstrate that the proposed solution can achieve near-optimal objective and meet the 1 ms timing requirement in 4G LTE. • An Ultrafast GPU-based Proportional Fair Scheduler for 5G NR: We study the popular proportional-fair (PF) scheduling problem in a 5G NR environment. The real-time requirement for determining the optimal (with respect to the PF objective) resource allocation and MCS selection solution is 125 μs (under 5G numerology 3). In this problem, we need to allocate frequency-time resource blocks on an operating channel and assign modulation and coding scheme (MCS) for each active user in the cell. We present GPF+ — a GPU based real-time PF scheduler. With GPF+, the original PF optimization problem is decomposed into a large number of small and in- dependent sub-problems. We then employ a cross-entropy based search intensification technique to identify the most promising problem sub-space and select a small set of sub-problems to fit into a GPU. After solving the selected sub-problems in parallel using GPU cores, we find the best sub-problem solution and use it as the final schedul- ing solution. Evaluation results show that GPF+ is able to provide near-optimal PF performance in a 5G cell while meeting the 125 μs real-time requirement. For the second type of problems, where there is no closed-form mathematical formulation, we propose to employ model-free deep learning (DL) or deep reinforcement learning (DRL) techniques along with judicious consideration of timing requirement throughout the design. Under DL/DRL, we employ deep function approximators (neural networks) to learn the unknown objective function of an optimization problem, approximate an optimal algorithm to find resource allocation solutions, or discover important mapping functions related to the resource optimization. To meet the real-time requirement, we propose to augment DL or DRL methods with optimization techniques at the input or output of the deep function approximators to reduce their complexities and computational time. Under this approach, we study the following two problems: • A DRL-based Approach to Dynamic eMBB/URLLC Multiplexing in 5G NR: We study the problem of dynamic multiplexing of eMBB and URLLC on the same channel through preemptive resource puncturing. The real-time requirement for determining the optimal URLLC puncturing solution is 1 ms (under 5G numerology 0). A major challenge in solving this problem is that it cannot be modeled using closed-form mathematical expressions. To address this issue, we develop a model-free DRL approach which employs a deep neural network to learn an optimal algorithm to allocate the URLLC puncturing over the operating channel, with the objective of minimizing the adverse impact from URLLC traffic on eMBB. Our contributions include a novel learning method that exploits the intrinsic properties of the URLLC puncturing optimization problem to achieve a fast and stable learning convergence, and a mechanism to ensure feasibility of the deep neural network's output puncturing solution. Experimental results demonstrate that our DRL-based solution significantly outperforms state-of-the-art algorithms proposed in the literature and meets the 1 ms real-time requirement for dynamic multiplexing. • A DL-based Link Adaptation for eMBB/URLLC Multiplexing in 5G NR: We investigate MCS selection for eMBB traffic under the impact of URLLC preemptive puncturing. The real-time requirement for determining the optimal MCSs for all eMBB transmissions scheduled in a transmission interval is 125 μs (under 5G numerology 3). The objective is to have eMBB meet a given block-error rate (BLER) target under the adverse impact of URLLC puncturing. Since this problem cannot be mathematically modeled in closed-form, we proposed a DL-based solution design that uses a deep neural network to learn and predict the BLERs of a transmission under each MCS level. Then based on the BLER predictions, an optimal MCS can be found for each transmission that can achieve the BLER target. To meet the 5G real-time requirement, we implement this design through a hybrid CPU and GPU architecture to minimize the execution time. Extensive experimental results show that our design can select optimal MCS under the impact of preemptive puncturing and meet the 125 μs timing requirement.en
dc.format.mediumETDen
dc.publisherVirginia Techen
dc.rightsIn Copyrighten
dc.rights.urihttp://rightsstatements.org/vocab/InC/1.0/en
dc.subjectWireless networken
dc.subjectresource allocationen
dc.subjectschedulingen
dc.subjectmathematical modelingen
dc.subjectoptimizationen
dc.subjectreal timeen
dc.subjectGPUen
dc.subjectdeep learningen
dc.subjectdeep reinforcement learningen
dc.titleReal-Time Resource Optimization for Wireless Networksen
dc.typeDissertationen
dc.contributor.departmentElectrical Engineeringen
dc.description.degreeDoctor of Philosophyen
thesis.degree.nameDoctor of Philosophyen
thesis.degree.leveldoctoralen
thesis.degree.grantorVirginia Polytechnic Institute and State Universityen
thesis.degree.disciplineElectrical Engineeringen
dc.contributor.committeechairHou, Yiwei Thomasen
dc.contributor.committeememberReed, Jeffrey H.en
dc.contributor.committeememberFeng, Wu-Chunen
dc.contributor.committeememberLou, Wenjingen
dc.contributor.committeememberXie, Weijunen
dc.description.abstractgeneralIn modern wireless networks such as 4G LTE and 5G NR, the optimal allocation of radio resources must be performed within a real-time requirement of 1 ms or even 100 μs time scale. Such a real-time requirement comes from the physical properties of wireless channels, the short time resolution for resource allocation defined in the wireless communication standards, and the low-latency requirement from delay-sensitive applications. Real-time requirement, although necessary for wireless networks in the field, has hardly been considered as a key constraint for solution design in the research community. Existing solutions in the literature mostly consider theoretical computational complexities, rather than actual computation time as measured by wall clock. To address the limitations of existing approaches, this dissertation presents real-time solution designs to two types of optimization problems in wireless networks: i) problems that have mathematical models, and ii) problems that cannot be modeled mathematically. For the first type of problems, we propose a novel approach that consists of (i) problem decomposition, (ii) search intensification, and (iii) GPU-based large-scale parallel processing techniques. The efficacy of this approach has been illustrated by our solutions to the following two problems. • Real-Time Scheduling to Achieve Fair LTE/Wi-Fi Coexistence: We investi- gate a resource optimization problem for the fair coexistence between LTE and Wi-Fi users in the same (unlicensed) spectrum. The real-time requirement for finding the optimal LTE resource allocation solution is on 1 ms time scale. • An Ultrafast GPU-based Proportional Fair Scheduler for 5G NR: We study the popular proportional-fair (PF) scheduling problem in a 5G NR environment. The real-time requirement for determining the optimal resource allocation and modulation and coding scheme (MCS) for each user is 125 μs. For the second type of problems, where there is no mathematical formulation, we propose to employ model-free deep learning (DL) or deep reinforcement learning (DRL) techniques along with judicious consideration of timing requirement throughout the design. Under this approach, we study the following two problems: • A DRL-based Approach to Dynamic eMBB/URLLC Multiplexing in 5G NR: We study the problem of dynamic multiplexing of eMBB and URLLC on the same channel through preemptive resource puncturing. The real-time requirement for determining the optimal URLLC puncturing solution is 1 ms. • A DL-based Link Adaptation for eMBB/URLLC Multiplexing in 5G NR: We investigate MCS selection for eMBB traffic under the impact of URLLC preemptive puncturing. The real-time requirement for determining the optimal MCSs for all eMBB transmissions scheduled in a transmission interval is 125 μs.en


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