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dc.contributor.authorMachac, Mary Kristinen
dc.date.accessioned2021-04-02T08:00:19Zen
dc.date.available2021-04-02T08:00:19Zen
dc.date.issued2021-04-01en
dc.identifier.othervt_gsexam:29685en
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10919/102926en
dc.description.abstractNovice instructional designers have limited experience working with ill-structured problems, and often do not possess the mental models to effectively analyze, manage, and communicate the overall design process of new instructional design projects (Wedman and Tessmer, 1993; Rowland, 1992; Perez and Emery, 1995; Liu, Gibby, Quiros, and Demps, 2002). In their 2016 article of expert instructional design principles applied by experienced designers in practice, York and Ertmer proposed the following questions for future research, "(a) Can we teach principles to novice instructional designers? (b) What methods should we use to provide this information?" (York and Ertmer, 2016, p. 189). This research further explored these questions and offers a new model of expert instructional design heuristics incorporating design thinking methods. The purpose of this study was to identify design thinking methods that aligned with heuristics of expert instructional design practitioners, and to design and develop a new model of heuristics and design thinking methods, which could assist novice instructional designers as they enter the instructional design field. The literature outlines challenges reported among novice instructional designers throughout the instructional design process, which includes their ability to solve ill-structured problems; conduct thorough analyses; collaborate in teams; negotiate priorities; generate a variety of ideas for solutions; overcome resource, budget and time constraints; communicate and manage projects with stakeholders; and prototype, iterate and pilot new design solutions (Rowland, 1992; Hoard, Stefaniak, Baaki, and Draper, 2019; Roytek, 2010; Liu, Gibby, Quiros, and Demps, 2002; Chang and Kuwata, 2020; Tracey and Boling, 2014; Perez and Emery, 1995; Williams van Rooij, 1993). The model offers novice instructional designers specific methods and combinations of methods to use for every stage of the instructional design process. As instructional designers implement design thinking methods within the context of their daily situations, they should become more comfortable and begin to adapt the methods to meet their individual needs for each stage of their process.en
dc.format.mediumETDen
dc.publisherVirginia Techen
dc.rightsIn Copyrighten
dc.rights.urihttp://rightsstatements.org/vocab/InC/1.0/en
dc.subjectinstructional design heuristicsen
dc.subjectADDIEen
dc.subjectdesign thinking methodsen
dc.titleA Model of Expert Instructional Design Heuristics Incorporating Design Thinking Methodsen
dc.typeDissertationen
dc.contributor.departmentEducation, Vocational-Technicalen
dc.description.degreeDoctor of Philosophyen
thesis.degree.nameDoctor of Philosophyen
thesis.degree.leveldoctoralen
thesis.degree.grantorVirginia Polytechnic Institute and State Universityen
thesis.degree.disciplineCurriculum and Instructionen
dc.contributor.committeechairPotter, Kenneth R.en
dc.contributor.committeememberLockee, Barbara B.en
dc.contributor.committeememberCennamo, Katherine S.en
dc.contributor.committeememberJohnson, Alicia Leinaalaen
dc.description.abstractgeneralInstructional design is a system of procedures for developing education and training curricula in a consistent and reliable fashion (Branch and Merrill, 2011; Branch and Kopcha, 2014). It embodies an iterative process for outlining outcomes, selecting teaching and learning strategies, choosing support technologies, identifying media, and measuring performance (Branch and Kopcha, 2014). Instructional designers use models of instructional design and instructional development to communicate tasks and procedures of the instructional design process (Andrews and Goodson, 1980). Over the years, numerous models of instructional design have been developed and adapted to meet the varying needs of instructional designers and developers. There is a consensus that most instructional processes consist of five core elements or stages: analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation, which are commonly referred to as ADDIE (Seels and Glasgow, 1990; Branch and Kopcha, 2014). While often considered generic, the ADDIE framework contains a useful set of common criteria, which most designers state as important or necessary as a part of any instructional design process (Pittenger, Janke, and Bumgardner, 2009; York and Ertmer, 2011; 2016). Novice instructional designers have limited experience working with ill-structured problems, and often do not possess the mental models (prior experience) to effectively analyze, manage, and communicate the overall design process of new instructional design projects (Wedman and Tessmer, 1993; Rowland, 1992; Perez and Emery, 1995; Liu, Gibby, Quiros, and Demps, 2002). In their 2016 article of expert instructional design principles applied by experienced designers in practice, York and Ertmer proposed the following questions for future research, "(a) Can we teach principles to novice instructional designers? (b) What methods should we use to provide this information?" (York and Ertmer, 2016, p. 189). This research further explored these questions and offers a new model of expert instructional design heuristics incorporating design thinking methods. For this study, heuristics were defined as generalized stages of an instructional designer's process and design thinking was defined as a human-centered design process for solving complex problems. The purpose of this study was to identify design thinking methods that aligned with heuristics of expert instructional design practitioners, and to design and develop a new model of heuristics and design thinking methods, which could assist novice instructional designers as they enter the instructional design field. The literature outlines challenges reported among novice instructional designers throughout the instructional design process, which includes their ability to solve ill-structured problems; conduct thorough analyses; collaborate in teams; negotiate priorities; generate a variety of ideas for solutions; overcome resource, budget and time constraints; communicate and manage projects with stakeholders; and prototype, iterate and pilot new design solutions (Rowland, 1992; Hoard, Stefaniak, Baaki, and Draper, 2019; Roytek, 2010; Liu, Gibby, Quiros, and Demps, 2002; Chang and Kuwata, 2020; Tracey and Boling, 2014; Perez and Emery, 1995; Williams van Rooij, 1993). The model offers novice instructional designers specific methods and combinations of methods to use for every stage of the instructional design process. As instructional designers implement design thinking methods within the context of their daily situations, they should become more comfortable and begin to adapt the methods to meet their individual needs for each stage of their process.en


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