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dc.contributor.authorBrewer, John Richarden
dc.date.accessioned2021-04-03T08:00:26Zen
dc.date.available2021-04-03T08:00:26Zen
dc.date.issued2021-04-02en
dc.identifier.othervt_gsexam:29479en
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10919/102929en
dc.description.abstractGoosegrass [Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn.] and smooth crabgrass [Digitaria ischaemum (Schreb.) Schreb. ex Muhl.] are problematic weeds in bermudagrass and creeping bentgrass turf. Increased incidences of herbicide resistant weed populations and severe use restrictions on formerly available herbicides have increased need for selective, postemergence control options for these weeds in creeping bentgrass and bermudagrass turf. This weed management exigency has led turf managers to utilize less effective, more expensive, and more injurious options to manage goosegrass and smooth crabgrass. Although potentially injurious, topramezone can control these weeds, especially goosegrass, at low doses. Low-dose topramezone may also improve bermudagrass and creeping bentgrass response. An initial investigation of three 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD) inhibiting herbicides in different turf types showed that Kentucky bluegrass, perennial ryegrass, and tall fescue were highly tolerant to topramezone, while creeping bentgrass and bermudagrass could tolerate topramezone doses that may control grassy weeds. Further investigation suggested that frequent, low-dose topramezone applications or metribuzin admixtures could enhance weed control and may conserve turfgrass quality. A novel mixture of topramezone at 3.7 g ae ha-1 and metribuzin at 210 g ai ha-1 controlled goosegrass effectively and reduced bermudagrass foliar bleaching associated with topramezone 10-fold compared to higher doses of topramezone alone in 19 field and 2 greenhouse trials. In an attempt to further enhance bermudagrass tolerance to topramezone, post-treatment irrigation was applied at various timings. When bermudagrass turf was irrigated with 0.25-cm water at 15 or 30 minutes after herbicide treatment, bermudagrass injury was reduced to acceptable levels when following low-dose topramezone plus metribuzin but not when following high-dose topramezone alone. Goosegrass control was reduced significantly by post-treatment irrigation in all cases, while irrigation reduced goosegrass control by low-dose topramezone plus metribuzin to below-commercially-acceptable levels. Novel, low-dose, frequent application programs containing topramezone or siduron were developed for season-long crabgrass or goosegrass control on creeping bentgrass greens. Greens-height creeping bentgrass quality was preserved following five biweekly treatments of siduron at rates between 3,400 to 13,500 g ai ha-1 and topramezone at 3.1 g ha-1. Siduron programs controlled smooth crabgrass and suppressed goosegrass while topramezone programs controlled goosegrass and suppressed smooth crabgrass. In laboratory and controlled-environment experiments, goosegrass absorbed three times more 14C than bermudagrass within 48 hours of 14C-topramezone treatment. Bermudagrass also metabolized topramezone twice as fast as goosegrass. Metribuzin admixture reduced absorption by 25% in both species. When herbicides were placed exclusively on soil, foliage, or soil plus foliage, topramezone controlled goosegrass only when applied to foliage and phytotoxicity of both bermudagrass and goosegrass was greater from topramezone than from metribuzin. Metribuzin was shown to reduce 21-d cumulative clipping weight and tiller production of both species while topramezone caused foliar discoloration to newly emerging leaves and shoots with only marginal clipping weight reduction. These data suggest that selectivity between bermudagrass and goosegrass is largely due to differential absorption and metabolism that reduces bermudagrass exposure to topramezone. Post-treatment irrigation likely reduces topramezone rate load with a concomitant effect on plant phytotoxicity of both species. Metribuzin admixture decreases white discoloration of bermudagrass by decreased topramezone absorption rate and eliminating new foliar growth that is more susceptible to discoloration by topramezone.en
dc.format.mediumETDen
dc.publisherVirginia Techen
dc.rightsIn Copyrighten
dc.rights.urihttp://rightsstatements.org/vocab/InC/1.0/en
dc.subjectbermudagrassen
dc.subjectCynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.; creeping bentgrassen
dc.subjectAgrostis stolonifera L.; digital image analysis; goosegrassen
dc.subjectEleusine indica (L.) Gaertn.; metribuzin; siduron; smooth crabgrass; topramezoneen
dc.titleOptimizing Topramezone and Other Herbicide Programs for Weed Control in Bermudagrass and Creeping Bentgrass Turfen
dc.typeDissertationen
dc.contributor.departmentPlant Pathology, Physiology and Weed Scienceen
dc.description.degreeDoctor of Philosophyen
thesis.degree.nameDoctor of Philosophyen
thesis.degree.leveldoctoralen
thesis.degree.grantorVirginia Polytechnic Institute and State Universityen
thesis.degree.disciplinePlant Pathology, Physiology and Weed Scienceen
dc.contributor.committeechairAskew, Shawn D.en
dc.contributor.committeememberWestwood, James H.en
dc.contributor.committeememberGoatley, James Michaelen
dc.contributor.committeememberHaak, David C.en
dc.description.abstractgeneralGoosegrass and smooth crabgrass are problematic weeds in bermudagrass and creeping bentgrass turf. Increased incidences of herbicide resistant weed populations and severe use restrictions on formerly available herbicides have increased need for selective, postemergence control options for these weeds in creeping bentgrass and bermudagrass turf. Although potentially injurious, topramezone (Pylex™) can control these weeds, especially goosegrass, at low doses. Low-dose Pylex™ may also improve bermudagrass and creeping bentgrass response. An initial investigation evaluating tembotrione (Laudis®), Pylex™, and mesotrione (Tenacity®) in different turfgrass species showed that Kentucky bluegrass, perennial ryegrass, and tall fescue were highly tolerant to Pylex™ at rates ranging from 0.75 to 2.25 fl. oz./A, while creeping bentgrass and bermudagrass were low to moderately tolerant to Pylex™. Further investigation suggested that frequent, low-dose (less than 0.25 fl. oz./A) Pylex™ applications or metribuzin (Sencor®) admixtures could enhance weed control and may conserve turfgrass quality. A novel mixture of Pylex™ at 0.15 fl. oz./A and Sencor® at 4 oz. wt./A controlled goosegrass effectively and reduced bermudagrass injury to near acceptable levels and significantly less than Pylex™ applied alone at 0.25 fl. oz/A. In an attempt to further enhance bermudagrass tolerance to Pylex™, post-treatment irrigation was applied at different timings. When bermudagrass turf was irrigated at 15 or 30 minutes after herbicide treatment, bermudagrass injury was reduced to acceptable levels when following Pylex™ at 0.25 fl. oz./A plus Sencor® at 4 oz but not when following Pylex™ applied alone at 0.5 fl. oz./A. Goosegrass control was reduced significantly by post-treatment irrigation in all cases, while irrigation reduced goosegrass control by low-dose Pylex™ plus Sencor® to below-commercially-acceptable levels. Novel, low-dose, frequent application programs containing Pylex™ or siduron (Tupersan®) were developed for season-long crabgrass or goosegrass control in creeping bentgrass greens. Greens-height creeping bentgrass quality was preserved following five biweekly treatments of Tupersan® at rates between 6 and 24 lb./A and Pylex™ at 0.125 fl. oz./A. Tupersan® programs controlled smooth crabgrass and suppressed goosegrass while Pylex™ programs controlled goosegrass and suppressed smooth crabgrass. The data from these studies indicate that utilizing low-dose Pylex™ in combination with Sencor® can impart acceptable bermudagrass safety while also controlling goosegrass effectively. For creeping bentgrass greens, the low-dose, frequent application of Tupersan® is the safest legal option for golf course superintendents to control smooth crabgrass effectively, while having some ability to suppress goosegrass.en


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