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dc.contributor.authorBardsley, Cameron A.en
dc.contributor.authorWeller, Daniel L.en
dc.contributor.authorIngram, David T.en
dc.contributor.authorChen, Yuhuanen
dc.contributor.authorOryang, Daviden
dc.contributor.authorRideout, Steven L.en
dc.contributor.authorStrawn, Laura K.en
dc.date.accessioned2021-04-22T12:22:46Zen
dc.date.available2021-04-22T12:22:46Zen
dc.date.issued2021-03-16en
dc.identifier.issn1664-302Xen
dc.identifier.other590303en
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10919/103075en
dc.description.abstractThe use of untreated biological soil amendments of animal origin (BSAAO) have been identified as one potential mechanism for the dissemination and persistence of Salmonella in the produce growing environment. Data on factors influencing Salmonella concentration in amended soils are therefore needed. The objectives here were to (i) compare die-off between 12 Salmonella strains following inoculation in amended soil and (ii) characterize any significant effects associated with soil-type, irrigation regimen, and amendment on Salmonella survival and die-off. Three greenhouse trials were performed using a randomized complete block design. Each strain (similar to 4 log CFU/g) was homogenized with amended or non-amended sandy-loam or clay-loam soil. Salmonella levels were enumerated In 25 g samples 0, 0.167 (4 h), 1,2, 4, 7, 10, 14, 21,28, 56, 84, 112, 168, 210, 252, and 336 days post-inoculation (dpi), or until two consecutive samples were enrichment negative. Regression analysis was performed between strain, soil-type, Irrigation, and (i) time to last detect (survival) and (li) concentration at each time-point (die-off rate). Similar effects of strain, irrigation, soil-type, and amendment were identified using the survival and die-off models. Strain explained up to 18% of the variance in survival, and up to 19% of variance In die-off rate. On average Salmonella survived for 129 days in amended soils, however, Salmonella survived, on average, 30 days longer In clay-loam soils than sandy-loam soils [95% Confidence interval (Cl) = 45, 15], with survival time ranging from 84 to 210 days for the individual strains during dally irrigation. When strain- specific associations were investigated using regression trees, S. Javiana and S. Saintpaul were found to survive longer In sandy-loam soil, whereas most of the other strains survived longer In clay-loam soil. Salmonella also survived, on average, 128 days longer when irrigated weekly, compared to daily (Cl = 101, 154), and 89 days longer in amended soils, than non-amended soils (Cl = 61,116). Overall, this study provides insight into Salmonella survival following contamination of field soils by BSAAO. Specifically, Salmonella survival may be strain- specific as affected by both soil characteristics and management practices. These data can assist in risk assessment and strain selection for use in challenge and validation studies.en
dc.description.sponsorshipFood and Drug Administration (FDA)United States Department of Health & Human Services; Specialty Crop Block Grant Program at the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA)through the Virginia Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services (VDACS); Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station; Hatch Program of the National Institute of Food and Agriculture, USDA; National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences of the National Institutes of Health (NIH)United States Department of Health & Human ServicesNational Institutes of Health (NIH) - USANIH National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) [T32ES007271]en
dc.format.mimetypeapplication/pdfen
dc.language.isoenen
dc.rightsCreative Commons Attribution 4.0 Internationalen
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/en
dc.subjectSalmonellaen
dc.subjectirrigationen
dc.subjecttime to harvest intervalen
dc.subjectbiological soil amendments of animal originen
dc.subjectstrain variabilityen
dc.subjectsurvivalen
dc.subjectpoultry litteren
dc.subjectdie-off rateen
dc.titleStrain, Soil-Type, Irrigation Regimen, and Poultry Litter Influence Salmonella Survival and Die-off in Agricultural Soilsen
dc.typeArticle - Refereeden
dc.contributor.departmentFood Science and Technologyen
dc.contributor.departmentSchool of Plant and Environmental Sciencesen
dc.contributor.departmentVirginia Agricultural Experiment Stationen
dc.description.notesThis project was funded, in part, by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and by the Specialty Crop Block Grant Program at the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) through the Virginia Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services (VDACS). Funding for this work was also provided by the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station and the Hatch Program of the National Institute of Food and Agriculture, USDA. Manuscript preparation and data analyses were supported by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) under award number T32ES007271. Its contents are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official views of the FDA, USDA, NIH, and VDACS.en
dc.title.serialFrontiers in Microbiologyen
dc.identifier.doihttps://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.590303en
dc.identifier.volume12en
dc.type.dcmitypeTexten
dc.type.dcmitypeStillImageen
dc.identifier.pmid33796083en


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