Numerical Analysis for Data-Driven Reduced Order Model Closures
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This dissertation contains work that addresses both theoretical and numerical aspects of reduced order models (ROMs). In an under-resolved regime, the classical Galerkin reduced order model (G-ROM) fails to yield accurate approximations. Thus, we propose a new ROM, the data-driven variational multiscale ROM (DD-VMS-ROM) built by adding a closure term to the G-ROM, aiming to increase the numerical accuracy of the ROM approximation without decreasing the computational efficiency. The closure term is constructed based on the variational multiscale framework. To model the closure term, we use data-driven modeling. In other words, by using the available data, we find ROM operators that approximate the closure term. To present the closure term's effect on the ROMs, we numerically compare the DD-VMS-ROM with other standard ROMs. In numerical experiments, we show that the DD-VMS-ROM is significantly more accurate than the standard ROMs. Furthermore, to understand the closure term's physical role, we present a theoretical and numerical investigation of the closure term's role in long-time integration. We theoretically prove and numerically show that there is energy exchange from the most energetic modes to the least energetic modes in closure terms in a long time averaging. One of the promising contributions of this dissertation is providing the numerical analysis of the data-driven closure model, which has not been studied before. At both the theoretical and the numerical levels, we investigate what conditions guarantee that the small difference between the data-driven closure model and the full order model (FOM) closure term implies that the approximated solution is close to the FOM solution. In other words, we perform theoretical and numerical investigations to show that the data-driven model is verifiable. Apart from studying the ROM closure problem, we also investigate the setting in which the G-ROM converges optimality. We explore the ROM error bounds' optimality by considering the difference quotients (DQs). We theoretically prove and numerically illustrate that both the ROM projection error and the ROM error are suboptimal without the DQs, and optimal if the DQs are used.
General Audience Abstract
In many realistic applications, obtaining an accurate approximation to a given problem can require a tremendous number of degrees of freedom. Solving these large systems of equations can take days or even weeks on standard computational platforms. Thus, lower-dimensional models, i.e., reduced order models (ROMs), are often used instead. The ROMs are computationally efficient and accurate when the underlying system has dominant and recurrent spatial structures. Our contribution to reduced order modeling is adding a data-driven correction term, which carries important information and yields better ROM approximations. This dissertation's theoretical and numerical results show that the new ROM equipped with a closure term yields more accurate approximations than the standard ROM.
- Doctoral Dissertations