A Real-Time Computer Vision Based Framework For Urban Traffic Safety Assessment and Driver Behavior Modeling Using Virtual Traffic Lanes
Abdelhalim, Awad Tarig
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Vehicle recognition and trajectory tracking plays an integral role in many aspects of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) applications; from behavioral modeling and car-following analyses to congestion prevention, crash prediction, dynamic signal timing, and active traffic management. This dissertation aims to improve the tasks of multi-object detection and tracking (MOT) as it pertains to urban traffic by utilizing the domain knowledge of traffic flow then utilize this improvement for applications in real-time traffic performance assessment, safety evaluation, and driver behavior modeling. First, the author proposes an ad-hoc framework for real-time turn count and trajectory reconstruction for vehicles passing through urban intersections. This framework introduces the concept of virtual traffic lanes representing the eight standard National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) movements within an intersection as spatio-temporal clusters utilized for movement classification and vehicle re-identification. The proposed framework runs as an additional layer to any multi-object tracker with minimal additional computation. The results obtained for a case study and on the AI City benchmark dataset indicate the high ability of the proposed framework in obtaining reliable turn count, speed estimates, and efficiently resolving the vehicle identity switches which occur within the intersection due to detection errors and occlusion. The author then proposes the utilization of the high accuracy and granularity trajectories obtained from video inference to develop a real-time safety-based driver behavior model, which managed to effectively capture the observed driving behavior in the site of study. Finally, the developed model was implemented as an external driver model in VISSIM and managed to reproduce the observed behavior and safety conflicts in simulation, providing an effective decision-support tool to identify appropriate safety interventions that would mitigate those conflicts. The work presented in this dissertation provides an efficient end-to-end framework and blueprint for trajectory extraction from road-side traffic video data, driver behavior modeling, and their applications for real-time traffic performance and safety assessment, as well as improved modeling of safety interventions via microscopic simulation.
General Audience Abstract
Traffic crashes are one of the leading causes of death in the world, averaging over 3,000 deaths per day according to the World Health Organization. In the United States alone, there are around 40,000 traffic fatalities annually. Approximately, 21.5% of all traffic fatalities occur due to intersection-related crashes. Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) is a field of traffic engineering that aims to transform traffic systems to make safer, more coordinated, and 'smarter' use of transport networks. Vehicle recognition and trajectory tracking, the process of identifying a specific vehicle's movement through time and space, plays an integral role in many aspects of ITS applications; from understanding how people drive and modeling that behavior, to congestion prevention, on-board crash avoidance systems, adaptive signal timing, and active traffic management. This dissertation aims to bridge the gaps in the application of ITS, computer vision, and traffic flow theory and create tools that will aid in evaluating and proactively addressing traffic safety concerns at urban intersections. The author presents an efficient, real-time framework for extracting reliable vehicle trajectories from roadside cameras, then proposes a safety-based driving behavior model that succeeds in capturing the observed driving behavior. This work is concluded by implementing this model in simulation software to replicate the existing safety concerns for an area of study, allowing practitioners to accurately model the existing safety conflicts and evaluate the different operation and safety interventions that would best mitigate them to proactively prevent crashes.
- Doctoral Dissertations