Now showing items 1-20 of 145

    • Earth’s Biosphere in Peril 

      Cairns, John (2011-03)
      Sustainable use of the planet is an attractive goal, especially concerning intergenerational ethics. However, a major ecological tipping point has been passed (e.g, melting glaciers) and, in the last three years, evidence ...
    • Silence that Kills 

      Cairns, John (Virginia Tech, 2014-01-22)
      All of humankind has remained silent about a serious problem _ the overpopulation of Earth. With the amount of people on Earth exponentially growing, food production for the growing population has become an increasing ...
    • Adapting to Symptoms of Global Warming Rather Than Addressing the Cause 

      Cairns, John (Virginia Tech, 2014-01-22)
      In recent years, global warming has been ignored and scientists producing evidence supporting this hypothesis have been denigrated and even investigated. However, as irrefutable evidence showing that global warming was a ...
    • The Sword of Damocles and the Biosphere 

      Cairns, John (National Academy of Sciences, 2014-01-22)
      The tale of the sword of Damocles can be used to describe the sword hanging by a thread over humankind with the damage it is doing to the present biosphere. The sixth biosphere, or the current biosphere, is experiencing ...
    • Science and Values for a Finite Planet 

      Cairns, John (Asian Journal of Experimental Sciences, 2014-01-22)
      Exponential population growth on a finite planet means less resources per capita, and humankind is dependent upon the resources of the biospheric life support system for survival. However, humankind has acted, in the past, ...
    • Goals and Conditions for a Sustainable World 

      Cairns, John (Ethics in Science and Environmental Politics, 2014-01-22)
      This book is a collection of John Cairns, Jr.'s papers, articles, and commentaries focusing primarily on goals and conditions needed to achieve the sustainable use of the planet.
    • The Future Eaters 

      Cairns, John (Virginia Tech, 2014-01-22)
      The 20% ecological overshoot in 2002 took 20% more natural resources than the Earth could regenerate. This overshoot is considered a measure of how humankind is _eating its future. Exceeding the planet s carrying capacity ...
    • Does Intelligence Provide Survival Value? 

      Cairns, John (The Social Contract, 2014-01-22)
      Intelligence is defined as a general mental capacity to reason, plan, solve problems, think abstractly, comprehend ideas, and learn. Intelligence can also be defined as the ability to acquire and apply information gathered ...
    • Taboos and Denials: Major Obstacles to Sustainable Use of the Planet 

      Cairns, John (Science and Society, 2014-01-22)
      A taboo is a (1) prohibition excluding something from use, approach, or mention because of its sacred and inviolable nature and (2) an object, work, or act protected by such a prohibition. Denial is a refusal to believe ...
    • Social Action, Social Responsibility, and Secondary Sources of Environmental Information 

      Cairns, John (Virginia Tech, 2014-01-22)
      It should be an expectation that scientists and intellectuals accept social responsibility. However, one obstacle to this goal is communicating basic messages of information generated by science professionals to the general ...
    • Monitoring Biospheric Health and Integrity 

      Cairns, John (National Academy of Sciences, 2014-01-22)
      The biosphere serves as the life support system for Earth and also is the basis of the human economy; therefore it should be maintained in optimal condition. In order for this maintenance to occur, a response team must be ...
    • Stress, Environmental 

      Cairns, John (Elsevier Inc., 2014-01-22)
      Environmental stress is an action, agent, or condition that impairs the structure or function of a biological system. This environmental stress can be natural, like hurricanes, droughts, floods and fires for example, or ...
    • Ecological Overshoot is Suicidal 

      Cairns, John (EcoRes Forum, 2014-01-22)
      December 19, 1987 marks the first day that humankind began living beyond its means and created a deficit for that year. Every year since 1987, humankind has had an ecological overshoot, or used more resources than the ...
    • Using Assisted Biotic Colonization to Cope with Habitat Loss Due to Sea Level Rise 

      Cairns, John (Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 2014-01-22)
      Sea level rise is already beginning to damage coastal areas, and if the rate of sea level rises continues to rise as rapidly as scientific evidence suggests, carefully selected areas for recolonization should already be ...
    • Assimilative Capacity Revisited 

      Cairns, John (Asian Journal of Experimental Sciences, 2014-01-22)
      Assimilative capacity is the ability of natural systems to assimilate humankind's wastes. Wastes (output) of some species in natural systems are the resources (input) of other species. Before the Industrial Revolution, ...
    • Eco-logy versus Eco-nomics 

      Cairns, John (Asian Journal of Experimental Sciences, 2014-01-22)
      The spelling of the words _eco-logy and _eco-nomics in the title is intended to emphasize that both words originated from the Greek word oikos, which means household, house, or family. Despite their common origin, never ...
    • Beyond Ecocentrism 

      Cairns, John (EcoRes Forum, 2014-01-22)
      In order to avoid further damage to the ecosystems, we must promote ecological health as the primary goal, which will require at least two steps beyond ecocentrism. First, one must regard the relationship between humankind ...
    • Going, Going, Gone: The Fate of Low-Lying Islands and Estuaries 

      Cairns, John (Virginia Tech, 2014-01-22)
      Garrett Hardin s lifeboat metaphor is used to illustrate the problems of overpopulation and finite resources. Sea levels are rising due to excess atmospheric greenhouse gases that melt glaciers and warm the oceans. With ...
    • The Globalization of Homo sapiens 

      Cairns, John (Asian Journal of Experimental Sciences, 2014-01-22)
      Homo sapiens began as a small-group species 160,000 years ago and remained tribal until the Agricultural Revolution about 10,000 years ago. Exponential growth began at that time and accelerated during the Industrial ...
    • Extinction: The Probable Consequence of the Assault on Science and Reason 

      Cairns, John (Virginia Tech, 2014-01-22)
      Humans capacity to reason and dependence on nature has been overshadowed by greed and materialism. As a result, humankind has ignored and attacked scientists and the evidence they have found concerning the state of our ...