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dc.contributorVirginia Tech
dc.contributor.authorAdler, L. S.
dc.contributor.authorIrwin, R. E.
dc.date.accessioned2014-01-10T20:07:55Z
dc.date.available2014-01-10T20:07:55Z
dc.date.issued2005-11
dc.identifier.citationLynn S. Adler and Rebecca E. Irwin 2005. ECOLOGICAL COSTS AND BENEFITS OF DEFENSES IN NECTAR. Ecology 86:2968–2978. http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/05-0118
dc.identifier.issn0012-9658
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10919/24797
dc.description.abstractThe nectar of many plant species contains defensive compounds that have been hypothesized to benefit plants through a variety of mechanisms. However, the relationship between nectar defenses and plant fitness has not been established for any species. We experimentally manipulated gelsemine, the principal alkaloid of Carolina jessamine (Gelsemium sempervirens), in nectar to determine its effect on pollinator visitation, nectar robber visitation, and male and female plant reproduction. We found that nectar robbers and most pollinators probed fewer flowers and spent less time per flower on plants with high compared to low nectar alkaloids. High alkaloids decreased the donation of fluorescent dye, an analogue of pollen used to estimate male plant reproduction, to neighboring plants by one-third to one-half. However, nectar alkaloids did not affect female plant reproduction, measured as pollen receipt, fruit set, seed set, and seed mass. The weak effects of nectar alkaloids on female reproduction could represent a balance between the altered behavior of nectar robbers and pollinators, or it could be that neither of these interactions affected plant reproduction. Taken together, these results suggest that secondary compounds in nectar may have more costs than benefits for plants.
dc.language.isoen_US
dc.publisherEcological Society of America
dc.subjectalkaloids
dc.subjectCarolina jessamine
dc.subjectcosts and benefits
dc.subjectfemale plant fitness
dc.subjectgelsemine
dc.subjectGelsemium sempervirens
dc.subjectmale plant fitness
dc.subjectnectar defense
dc.subjectnectar robbing
dc.subjectpollination
dc.subjectsecondary compounds
dc.subjecttoxic nectar
dc.subjectgelsemium-sempervirens loganiaceae
dc.subjectipomopsis-aggregata polemoniaceae
dc.subjectwild radish
dc.subjectadaptive significance
dc.subjectfloral variation
dc.subjectseed production
dc.subjecttoxic nectar
dc.subjectpollen flow
dc.subjectplant
dc.subjectherbivory
dc.subjectEnvironmental Sciences & Ecology
dc.titleEcological costs and benefits of defenses in nectar
dc.typeArticle - Refereed
dc.identifier.urlhttp://www.esajournals.org/doi/pdf/10.1890/05-0118
dc.date.accessed2014-01-08
dc.title.serialEcology
dc.identifier.doihttps://doi.org/10.1890/05-0118


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