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Humankind is dependent upon Earth s ecological life support system, whose well-being, in turn, depends upon the practices of human society. The health of both systems requires harmonious, mutualistic interactions between them. Because of its population size and demographic distribution (increasingly urbanized), humankind is also dependent upon its technological life support system, which, as currently managed, threatens the ecological life support system. A fundamental difference exists between the two systems humankind is capable of using intelligence and reason to regulate its activities but the 30+ million other life forms that comprise the ecological life support system cannot. As a consequence, empathy for the other system is the responsibility of human society. Sustainable coevolution requires that human society have a high level of ecological literacy and act in a nurturing, compassionate way toward the other system. Only then will sustainable coevolution be possible since both systems are dynamic and continually changing.