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A model is provided for the image formation by a three-dimensional lens with negative index of refraction (n) and compared with results for an array of split-ring resonators (SRRs) and wires. For n=-1, a linear decrease in image distance r is expected with increasing object distance l. A nonlinear r vs l is anticipated for other n values. A lens of an array of SRRs and wires was made and characterized over 1-18 GHz and n=-1, and a gain of similar to 8 dB at 11.25 GHz was achieved. Results on r vs l are in excellent agreement with the model. (C) 2007 American Institute of Physics.