Studies of PF Resole / Isocyanate Hybrid Adhesives
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Phenol-formaldehyde (PF) resole and polymeric diphenylmethane diisocyanate (PMDI) are two commonly used exterior thermosetting adhesives in the wood-based composites industry. There is an interest in combining these two adhesives in order to benefit from their positive attributes while also neutralizing some of the negative ones. Although this novel adhesive system has been reportedly utilized in some limited cases, a fundamental understanding is lacking. This research serves this purpose by investigating some of the important aspects of this novel adhesive system. The adhesive rheological and viscometric properties were investigated with an advanced rheometer. The resole/PMDI blends exhibited non-Newtonian flow behavior. The blend viscosity and stability were dependent on the blend ratio, mixing rate and time. The adhesive penetration into wood was found to be dependent on the blend ratio and correlated with the blend viscosity. By using dynamic mechanical analysis, the blend cure speed was found to increase with the PMDI content. Mode I fracture testing of resole/PMDI hybrid adhesive bonded wood specimens indicated the dependence of bondline fracture energy on the blend ratio. The 75/25 PF/PMDI blend exhibited a high fracture energy with a fast cure speed and processable viscosity. Exposure to water-boil weathering severely deteriorated the fracture energies of the hybrid adhesive bondlines. More detailed chemistry and morphological studies were performed with cross-polarization nuclear magnetic resonance and 13C, 15N-doubly labeled PMDI. A spectral decomposition method was used to obtain information regarding chemical species concentration and relaxation behavior of the contributing components within the major nitrogen resonance. Different urethane concentrations were present in the cured blend bondlines. Water-boil weathering and thermal treatment at elevated temperatures (e.g. > 200Â°C) caused reduced urethane concentrations in the bondline. Solid-state relaxation parameters revealed a heterogeneous structure in the non-weathered blends. Water boil weathering caused a more uniform relaxation behavior in the blend bondline. By conducting this research, more fundamental information regarding the PF/PMDI hybrid adhesives will become available. This information will aid in the evaluation of, and improve the potential use of PF/PMDI hybrid adhesives for wood-based composites.
- Doctoral Dissertations