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dc.contributor.authorNewbill, Phyllis Learyen_US
dc.date.accessioned2014-03-14T20:10:04Z
dc.date.available2014-03-14T20:10:04Z
dc.date.issued2005-03-22en_US
dc.identifier.otheretd-04192005-151412en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10919/27000
dc.description.abstractAlthough negative attitudes toward science are common among women and men in undergraduate introductory science classes, womenâ s attitudes toward science tend to be more negative than menâ s. The reasons for womenâ s negative attitudes toward science include lack of self-confidence, fear of association with social outcasts, lack of women role models in science, and the fundamental differences between traditional scientific and feminist values. Attitudes are psychological constructs theorized to be composed of emotional, cognitive, and behavioral components. Attitudes serve functions, including social expressive, value expressive, utilitarian, and defensive functions, for the people who hold them. To change attitudes, the new attitudes must serve the same function as the old one, and all three components must be treated. Instructional designers can create instructional environments to effect attitude change. In designing instruction to improve womenâ s attitudes toward science, instructional designers should (a) address the emotions that are associated with existing attitudes, (b) involve credible, attractive women role models, and (c) address the functions of the existing attitudes. Two experimental instructional modules were developed based on these recommendations, and two control modules were developed that were not based on these recommendations. The asynchronous, web-based modules were administered to 281 undergraduate geology and chemistry students at two universities. Attitude assessment revealed that attitudes toward scientists improved significantly more in the experimental group, although there was no significant difference in overall attitudes toward science. Womenâ s attitudes improved significantly more than menâ s in both the experimental and control groups. Students whose attitudes changed wrote significantly more in journaling activities associated with the modules. Qualitative analysis of journals revealed that the guidelines worked exactly as predicted for some students.en_US
dc.publisherVirginia Techen_US
dc.relation.haspartNewbilldissertation.pdfen_US
dc.relation.haspartCacioppo.txten_US
dc.relation.haspartElsevier.htmen_US
dc.relation.haspartPetty.htmen_US
dc.rightsI hereby certify that, if appropriate, I have obtained and attached hereto a written permission statement from the owner(s) of each third party copyrighted matter to be included in my thesis, dissertation, or project report, allowing distribution as specified below. I certify that the version I submitted is the same as that approved by my advisory committee. I hereby grant to Virginia Tech or its agents the non-exclusive license to archive and make accessible, under the conditions specified below, my thesis, dissertation, or project report in whole or in part in all forms of media, now or hereafter known. I retain all other ownership rights to the copyright of the thesis, dissertation or project report. I also retain the right to use in future works (such as articles or books) all or part of this thesis, dissertation, or project report.en_US
dc.subjectInstructional Designen_US
dc.subjectWomenâ s studiesen_US
dc.subjectScience Educationen_US
dc.subjectAttitude changeen_US
dc.titleInstructional Strategies to Improve Women's Attitudes toward Scienceen_US
dc.typeDissertationen_US
dc.contributor.departmentTeaching and Learningen_US
dc.description.degreePh. D.en_US
thesis.degree.namePh. D.en_US
thesis.degree.leveldoctoralen_US
thesis.degree.grantorVirginia Polytechnic Institute and State Universityen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineCurriculum and Instructionen_US
dc.contributor.committeechairCennamo, Katherine S.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberWhisonant, Robert C.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberLockee, Barbara B.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberSingh, Kusumen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberDoolittle, Peter E.en_US
dc.identifier.sourceurlhttp://scholar.lib.vt.edu/theses/available/etd-04192005-151412/en_US
dc.date.sdate2005-04-19en_US
dc.date.rdate2005-04-25
dc.date.adate2005-04-25en_US


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