Implementation of Parallel and Serial Concatenated Convolutional Codes
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Parallel concatenated convolutional codes (PCCCs), called "turbo codes" by their discoverers, have been shown to perform close to the Shannon bound at bit error rates (BERs) between 1e-4 and 1e-6. Serial concatenated convolutional codes (SCCCs), which perform better than PCCCs at BERs lower than 1e-6, were developed borrowing the same principles as PCCCs, including code concatenation, pseudorandom interleaving and iterative decoding. The first part of this dissertation introduces the fundamentals of concatenated convolutional codes. The theoretical and simulated BER performance of PCCC and SCCC are discussed. Encoding and decoding structures are explained, with emphasis on the Log-MAP decoding algorithm and the general soft-input soft-output (SISO) decoding module. Sliding window techniques, which can be employed to reduce memory requirements, are also briefly discussed. The second part of this dissertation presents four major contributions to the field of concatenated convolutional coding developed through this research. First, the effects of quantization and fixed point arithmetic on the decoding performance are studied. Analytic bounds and modular renormalization techniques are developed to improve the efficiency of SISO module implementation without compromising the performance. Second, a new stopping criterion, SDR, is discovered. It is found to perform well with lowest cost when evaluating its complexity and performance in comparison with existing criteria. Third, a new type-II code combining automatic repeat request (ARQ) technique is introduced which makes use of the related PCCC and SCCC. Fourth, a new code-assisted synchronization technique is presented, which uses a list approach to leverage the simplicity of the correlation technique and the soft information of the decoder. In particular, the variant that uses SDR criterion achieves superb performance with low complexity. Finally, the third part of this dissertation discusses the FPGA-based implementation of the turbo decoder, which is the fruit of cooperation with fellow researchers.
- Doctoral Dissertations