Self-efficacy: Judgments of Ability or Willingness?
Mitton, Felicity L.
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The present studies attempted to clarify the constructs of self-efficacy and outcome expectancies in relation to college student drinking. In study 1, heavy-drinking college students were asked for efficacy judgments for limiting their heavy-drinking for increasing periods of time (e.g. 1 day, 1 week, 1 month, etc.). Students were also asked for efficacy judgments for throwing a basketball into a hoop from increasing distances (e.g. 5 feet, 10 feet, 15 feet). Hypothetical incentives were offered to change efficacy ratings for the first tasks on each hierarchy (limiting drinking and basketball) to which the participant had responded with a negative efficacy judgments. Hypothetical incentives were also offered for the most difficult task on each hierarchy. As predicted, students changed efficacy ratings for limiting drinking much more frequently. Additionally, heavy-drinking college students indicated that money persuaded them to alter their efficacy judgments for limiting drinking, but lack of ability predominated as the reason for not altering basketball task efficacy. In study 2, the relationship between ability judgments, willingness, and outcome expectancies was explored by manipulating the wording of questionnaires presented to heavy-drinking college students. Results indicated that ability judgments were higher than willingness judgments for limiting drinking. Willingness appeared to be related to expected positive and negative effects of consuming alcohol. Principle components analysis indicated that ability and willingness were distinct constructs. Results of both studies are discussed in terms of the ongoing debate between Albert Bandura and Irving Kirsch and the need for a more clarity regarding efficacy and its measurement.
- Doctoral Dissertations