Nonlinear Analysis and Control of Standalone, Parallel DC-DC, and Parallel Multi-Phase PWM Converters
Mazumder, Sudip K.
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Applications of distributed-power systems are on the rise. They are already used in telecommunication power supplies, aircraft and shipboard power-distribution systems, motor drives, plasma applications, and they are being considered for numerous other applications. The successful operation of these multi-converter systems relies heavily on a stable design. Conventional analyses of power converters are based on averaged models, which ignore the fast-scale instability and analyze the stability on a reduced-order manifold. As such, validity of the averaged models varies with the switching frequency even for the same topological structure. The prevalent procedure for analyzing the stability of switching converters is based on linearized smooth averaged (small-signal) models. Yet there are systems (in active use) that yield a non-smooth averaged model. Even for systems for which smooth averaged models are realizable, small-signal analyses of the nominal solution/orbit do not provide anything about three important characteristics: region of attraction of the nominal solution, dependence of the converter dynamics on the initial conditions of the states, and the post-instability dynamics. As such, converters designed based on small-signal analyses may be conservative. In addition, linear controllers based on such analysis may not be robust and optimal. Clearly, there is a need to analyze the stability of power converters from a different perspective and design nonlinear controllers for such hybrid systems. In this Dissertation, using bifurcation analysis and Lyapunov's method, we analyze the stability and dynamics of some of the building blocks of distributed-power systems, namely standalone, integrated, and parallel converters. Using analytical and experimental results, we show some of the differences between the conventional and new approaches for stability analyses of switching converters and demonstrate the shortcomings of some of the existing results. Furthermore, using nonlinear analyses we attempt to answer three fundamental questions: when does an instability occur, what is the mechanism of the instability, and what happens after the instability? Subsequently, we develop nonlinear controllers to stabilize parallel dc-dc and parallel multi-phase converters. The proposed controllers for parallel dc-dc converters combine the concepts of multiple-sliding-surface and integral-variable-structure control. They are easy to design, robust, and have good transient and steady-state performances. Furthermore, they achieve a constant switching frequency within the boundary layer and hence can be operated in interleaving or synchronicity modes. The controllers developed for parallel multi-phase converters retain many of the above features. In addition, they do not require any communication between the modules; as such, they have high redundancy. One of these control schemes combines space-vector modulation and variable-structure control. It achieves constant switching frequency within the boundary layer and a good compromise between the transient and steady-state performances.
- Doctoral Dissertations