Development of the Evanescent Wave Atomic Force Microscope
Clark, Spencer C
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The conventional atomic force microscope (AFM) is equipped with a single optical detection system. Probe-sample separation is determined in an independent deflection with respect to AFM z-translation experiment. This method of determining probe-surface separation is relative, susceptible to drift and does not provide real time separation information. The evanescent wave atomic force microscope (EW-AFM) utilizes a second, independent detection system to determine absolute probe-surface separation in real time. The EW-AFM can simultaneously acquire real-time force and probe-sample separation information using the optical lever and evanescent scattering detection systems, respectively. The EW-AFM may be configured with feedback on the optical-lever system for constant force applications or with feedback on evanescent wave scattering intensity for constant height applications. Scattering of the evanescent wave exponential decay profile is used to determine probe-surface separation. Sub-micron sized dielectric and metallic probes show exponential scattering profiles, micron sized polystyrene and borosilicate microspheres show non-exponential profiles when they are affixed beneath the cantilever tip. By affixing the microspheres to the end of the AFM cantilever exponential and non-exponential profiles were observed. The EW-AFM can be used to conduct force-distance and imaging experiments. The EW-AFM was used to measure the thickness of surfactant bilayers formed at the silica-solution interface using silicon nitride AFM tips. The presence of a refractive index difference between the surfactant bilayer and the solution does not influence the accuracy of the surfactant bilayer thickness measurement. The EW-AFM was used to scan a 2 x 2 micron area in constant height mode. The probe was brought to within 6 nanometers of a planar dielectric surface using the evanescent wave intensity as a height reference with accuracy of Â± 1 nm. This capability may be utilized to observe charge heterogeneity at the solid-liquid interface with nanometer lateral resolution or to map chemical functional group heterogeneity based on perturbations to the electrical double layer. The EW-AFM evanescent scattering system has an absolute separation resolution of 0.3 nm compared to 1.0 nm relative separation resolution for the optical lever system. In constant scattering (constant height) mode the real time separation precision is about 2 nm.
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