Thermomechanical Response of Shape Memory Alloy Hybrid Composites
Turner, Travis Lee
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This study examines the use of embedded shape memory alloy (SMA)actuators for adaptive control of the themomechanical response of composite structures. Control of static and dynamic responses are demonstrated including thermal buckling, thermal post-buckling, vibration, sonic fatigue, and acoustic transmission. A thermomechanical model is presented for analyzing such shape memory alloy hybrid composite (SMAHC) structures exposed to thermal and mechanical loads. Also presented are (1) fabrication procedures for SMAHC specimens, (2) characterization of the constituent materials for model quantification, (3) development of the test apparatus for conducting static and dynamic experiments on specimens with and without SMA, (4) discussion of the experimental results, and (5) validation of the analytical and numerical tools developed in the study. The constitutive model developed to describe the mechanics of a SMAHC lamina captures the material nonlinearity with temperature of the SMA and matrix material if necessary. It is in a form that is amenable to commercial finite element (FE) code implementation. The model is valid for constrained, restrained, or free recovery configurations with appropriate measurements of fundamental engineering properties. This constitutive model is used along with classical lamination theory and the FE method to formulate the equations of motion for panel-type structures subjected to steady-state thermal and dynamic mechanical loads. Mechanical loads that are considered include acoustic pressure, inertial (base acceleration), and concentrated forces. Four solution types are developed from the governing equations including thermal buckling, thermal post-buckling, dynamic response, and acoustic transmission/radiation. These solution procedures are compared with closed-form and/or other known solutions to benchmark the numerical tools developed in this study. Practical solutions for overcoming fabrication issues and obtaining repeatable specimens are demonstrated. Results from characterization of the SMA constituent are highlighted with regard to their impact on thermomechanical modeling. Results from static and dynamic tests on a SMAHC beam specimen are presented, which demonstrate the enormous control authority of the SMA actuators. Excellent agreement is achieved between the predicted and measured responses including thermal buckling, thermal post-buckling, and dynamic response due to inertial loading. The validated model and thermomechanical analysis tools are used to demonstrate a variety of static and dynamic response behaviors associated with SMAHC structures. Topics of discussion include the fundamental mechanics of SMAHC structures, control of static (thermal buckling and post-buckling) and dynamic responses (vibration, sonic fatigue, and acoustic transmission), and SMAHC design considerations for these applications. The dynamic response performance of a SMAHC panel specimen is compared to conventional response abatement approaches. SMAHCs are shown to have significant advantages for vibration, sonic fatigue, and noise control.
- Doctoral Dissertations