Active and Semi-Active Control of Civil Structures under Seismic Excitation
Matheu, Enrique E.
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The main focus of this study is on the active and semi-active control of civil engineering structures subjected to seismic excitations. Among different candidate control strategies, the sliding mode control approach emerges as a convenient alternative, because of its superb robustness under parametric and input uncertainties. The analytical developments and numerical results presented in this dissertation are directed to investigate the feasibility of application of the sliding mode control approach to civil structures. In the first part of this study, a unified treatment of active and semi-active sliding mode controllers for civil structures is presented. A systematic procedure, based on a special state transformation, is also presented to obtain the regular form of the state equations which facilitates the design of the control system. The conditions under which this can be achieved in the general case of control redundancy are also defined. The importance of the regular form resides in the fact that it allows to separate the design process in two basic steps: (a) selection of a target sliding surface and (b) determination of the corresponding control actions. Several controllers are proposed and extensive numerical results are presented to investigate the performance of both active and semi-active schemes, examining in particular the feasibility of application to real size civil structures. These numerical studies show that the selection of the sliding surface constitutes a crucial step in the implementation of an efficient control design. To improve this design process, a generalized sliding surface definition is used which is based on the incorporation of two auxiliary dynamical systems. Numerical simulations show that this definition renders a controller design which is more flexible, facilitating its tuning to meet different performance specifications. This study also considers the situation in which not all the state information is available for control purposes. In practical situations, only a subset of the physical variables, such as displacements and velocities, can be directly measured. A general approach is formulated to eliminate the explicit effect of the unmeasured states on the design of the sliding surface and the associated controller. This approach, based on a modified regular form transformation, permits the utilization of arbitrary combinations of measured and unmeasured states. The resulting sliding surface design problem is discussed within the framework of the classical optimal output feedback theory, and an efficient algorithm is proposed to solve the corresponding matrix nonlinear equations. A continuous active controller is proposed based only on bounding values of the unmeasured states and the input ground motion. Both active and semi-active schemes are evaluated by numerical simulations, which show the applicability and performance of the proposed approach.
- Doctoral Dissertations