Advances In Computational Fluid Dynamics: Turbulent Separated Flows And Transonic Potential Flows
Neel, Reece E.
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Computational solutions are presented for flows ranging from incompressible viscous flows to inviscid transonic flows. The viscous flow problems are solved using the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations while the inviscid solutions are attained using the full potential equation. Results for the viscous flow problems focus on turbulence modeling when separation is present. The main focus for the inviscid results is the development of an unstructured solution algorithm. The subject dealing with turbulence modeling for separated flows is discussed first. Two different test cases are presented. The first flow is a low-speed converging-diverging duct with a rapid expansion, creating a large separated flow region. The second case is the flow around a stationary hydrofoil subject to small, oscillating hydrofoils. Both cases are computed first in a steady state environment, and then with unsteady flow conditions imposed. A special characteristic of the two problems being studied is the presence of strong adverse pressure gradients leading to flow detachment and separation. For the flows with separation, numerical solutions are obtained by solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. These equations are solved in a time accurate manner using the method of artificial compressibility. The algorithm used is a finite volume, upwind differencing scheme based on flux-difference splitting of the convective terms. The Johnson and King turbulence model is employed for modeling the turbulent flow. Modifications to the Johnson and King turbulence model are also suggested. These changes to the model focus mainly on the normal stress production of energy and the strong adverse pressure gradient associated with separating flows. The performance of the Johnson and King model and its modifications, along with the Baldwin-Lomax model, are presented in the results. The modifications had an impact on moving the flow detachment location further downstream, and increased the sensitivity of the boundary layer profile to unsteady flow conditions. Following this discussion is the numerical solution of the full potential equation. The full potential equation assumes inviscid, irrotational flow and can be applied to problems where viscous effects are small compared to the inviscid flow field and weak normal shocks. The development of a code is presented which solves the full potential equation in a finite volume, cell centered formulation. The unique feature about this code is that solutions are attained on unstructured grids. Solutions are computed in either two or three dimensions. The grid has the flexibility of being made up of tetrahedra, hexahedra, or prisms. The flow regime spans from low subsonic speeds up to transonic flows. For transonic problems, the density is upwinded using a density biasing technique. If lift is being produced, the Kutta-Joukowski condition is enforced for circulation. An implicit algorithm is employed based upon the Generalized Minimum Residual method. To accelerate convergence, the Generalized Minimum Residual method is preconditioned. These and other problems associated with solving the full potential equation on an unstructured mesh are discussed. Results are presented for subsonic and transonic flows over bumps, airfoils, and wings to demonstrate the unstructured algorithm presented here.
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