High Efficiency Optimization of LLC Resonant Converter for Wide Load Range
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As information technology advances, so does the demand for power management of telecom and computing equipment. High efficiency and high power density are still the key technology drivers for power management for these applications. In order to save energy, in 2005, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced the first draft of its proposed revision to its ENERGY STAR specification for computers. The draft specification separately addresses efficiency requirements for laptop, desktop, workstation and server computers. The draft specification also proposes a minimum power supply efficiency of 80% for PCs and 75% to 83% for desktop derived servers, depending on loading condition and server type. Furthermore, recently some industry companies came out with a much higher efficiency target for the whole AC/DC front-end converter over a wide load range. Distributed power systems are widely adopted in the telecom and computing applications for the reason of high performance and high reliability. As one of the key building blocks in distributed power systems, DC/DC converters in the front-end converter are also under the pressure of increasing efficiency and power density. Due to the hold-up time requirement, PWM DC/DC converters cannot achieve high efficiency for well known reasons when they are designed for wide input voltage range. As a promising topology for this application, LLC resonant converters can achieve both high efficiency and wide input voltage range capability because of its voltage gain characteristics and small switching loss. However, the efficiency of LLC resonant converter with diode rectifier still cannot meet the recent efficiency target from industry. In order to further improve efficiency of LLC resonant converters, synchronous rectification must be used. The complete solution of synchronous rectification of LLC resonant converters is discussed in this thesis. The driving of the synchronous rectifier can be realized by sensing the voltage Vds of the SR. The turn-on of the SR can be triggered by the body-diode conduction of the SR. With the Vds compensation network, the precise voltage drop on Rds_on can be achieved, thus the SR can be turned off at the right time. Moreover, efficiency optimization at normal operation over wide load range is discussed. It is revealed that power loss at normal operation is solely determined by the magnetizing inductance while the magnetizing inductor is designed according to dead-time td selection. The mathematic equations for the relationship between power loss and dead-time are developed. For the first time, the relationship between power loss and dead-time is used as a tool for efficiency optimization. With this tool, the efficiency optimization of the LLC resonant converter can be made according to efficiency requirement over a wide load range. With the expectation to achieve high efficiency at ultra-light load, the green mode operation of LLC resonant converters is addressed. The rationale of the issue with the conventional control algorithm is revealed and a preliminary solution is proposed.
- Masters Theses