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Pharmacokinetic Profiles of Oxytetracycline in Yellow Perch (Perca flavescens) as Determined by Plasma Concentration Following Different Routes of Administration
Bowden, Brent Christopher
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Oxytetracycline (OTC) is one of two antibiotics currently available and approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for use as a chemotherapeutic agent in food fish and is widely used in the aquaculture industry. Previous pharmacokinetic studies of OTC have been conducted in cold water and warm water species of fish. However, no pharmacokinetic studies have been conducted on a cool water species such as yellow perch (Perca flavescens). The yellow perch is a cool water game and commercial species with high aquaculture potential. The pharmacokinetic profiles of oxytetracycline (OTC) was determined by measuring plasma concentrations in yellow perch following intraperitoneal (i.p.), intramuscular (i.m.), per os (p.o.), and intracardiac (i.c.) administration at a single dose of 50 mg/kg body weight. Using a modification of a high- performance-liquid-chromatographic (HPLC) technique, the plasma OTC concentrations were determined for each of the four routes of administration. Plasma concentrations were also evaluated in yellow perch exposed to a static 48-hour OTC water bath (100 mg/l). The terminal half-lives (t1/2) of OTC in yellow perch for i.p., i.m., p.o., and i.c. administrations were 112, 124, 50, and 28 h, respectively. The t1/2 for the i.m. route of administration was significantly longer than in any of the published i.m. OTC fish studies to date. However, the times of maximum OTC concentration (tmax) for the i.p., i.m. and p.o. administrations (2, 4, and 15 h, respectively) occurred relatively early in the plasma concentration-time curves. This suggests, that in yellow perch, OTC is initially absorbed very rapidly. The area under the plasma concentration-time curves (AUC) for the i.p., i.m., p.o., and i.c. routes of administration were 1718, 2659, 383, and 134 mcgÂ·h/ml, respectively. No OTC was detected in the plasma of yellow perch following the water bath route of exposure. Finally, in yellow perch, effective therapy (plasma OTC concentrations above MIC values for most bacteria pathogenic to fish â 4 mcg/ml) would be achieved for up to 168 hours following a single i.p. or i.m. injection of 50 mg/kg and for up to 15 hours following a single p.o dose of 50 mg/kg.
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