Water Quality, Aesthetic, and Corrosion Inhibitor Implications of Newly Installed Cement Mortar Lining Used to Rehabilitate Drinking Water Pipelines
Clark, David D
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For decades, cement mortar relining has been used successfully to extend the life of drinking water pipelines, although, few quantitative data exist on the short-term water quality impacts of this process. This study investigated mortar lining impacts on disinfectant by-product formation, alkalinity, metal leaching, pH and disinfectant consumption, and odor generation shortly after in-situ installation. The experimental design used a 30-day, coupon immersion procedure that simulated a relined 4-inch diameter pipe located in a low-flow system. Four water regimes were utilized; no disinfectant, chlorine (2 mg/L at pH 6 .5 and 8), and chloramines. Flavor Profile Analysis panels evaluated odors of samples and controls. Additionally, the affects of three different phosphate-based corrosion prevention additive regimes were evaluated. Cement mortar leachates impacted water quality significantly during the first week of exposure. Alkalinity, hardness and pH increased dramatically after initial exposure, rising to approximately 600 mg/L as CaCO3 alkalinity, 770 mg/L as CaCO3 hardness, and pH 12 in the first two days. Sharp declines in alkalinity and hardness did not occur until after day 9 when the cement mortar was substantially cured and release of calcium hydroxide lessened. Chlorinated water residual disinfectant decay rate was increased substantially during the initial 24 hours and remained elevated until day 9. After day 1, there was not a significant increase in the formation of regulated haloacetic acids or trihalomethanes. Significant levels of aluminum (< 700 ug/L) and chromium (< 75 ug/L) were released at various times during the test period but their concentrations did not exceed USEPA water quality standards. Cement odor intensity levels were significantly higher than controls, persisted for 14 days, and were of an intensity that would be readily noticeable to consumers. The polyphosphate-based corrosion preventative resulted in less severe water quality effects than other phosphate additives or water without added phosphate.
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