Differential Response of a Virginia Common Lambsquarters (Chenopodium album) Collection to Glyphosate
The purpose of this research was to evaluate a common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album) collection from Westmoreland County, Virginia, which exhibited a differential response to glyphosate treatments as compared to most other common lambsquarters. Plants from this site that survived glyphosate applications were collected in both 2002 and 2004. Greenhouse studies were conducted on F1, F2, and F3 progeny from this collection and compared to a wild type collection from Montgomery County, Virginia. Evaluations were conducted on these plants treated with a range of glyphosate rates. F1 progeny of the Westmoreland plants from both 2002 and 2004 collections showed reduced response to glyphosate relative to the Montgomery collection. Vigor reduction of F1 progeny from three 2004 Westmoreland source plants with 0.84 kg ae/ha of glyphosate ranged from 66 to 85% at 28 days after treatment (DAT), compared to 89% for the Montgomery collection. Evaluation of four Westmoreland F2 common lambsquarters lines derived from 2002 collections indicated significant differences in glyphosate sensitivity. Fifteen F2 lines were generated from 2004 collections from each of three Westmoreland source plants and from the Montgomery source. For the least sensitive Westmoreland source, vigor reduction ranged from only 24 to 36% across F2 lines in response to 1.68 kg/ha of glyphosate at 28 DAT, relative to 55 to 100% for the Montgomery source. I50 estimates for fresh weight reduction were 0.91 and 0.32 kg/ha, for these sources, respectively. Sequential treatments of 0.42, 1.26, and 1.68 kg/ha applied at three-week intervals to the least susceptible 2004 Westmoreland F2 line resulted in only 37% vigor reduction and no mortality among 360 treated plants. Growth chamber studies were also conducted on the F2 progeny of these sources to determine if differential growth responses occur in noncompetitive environments and in the absence of glyphosate treatment. Generally, few differences were observed among the Westmoreland and Montgomery collections in growth parameters including height, leaf number, leaf area, leaf size, shoot weight, and reproductive output. However, significant differences were observed with regard to root weight, root length, and root density. In germination studies, it was determined that the Montgomery source had significantly faster and greater seed germination than the Westmoreland source. The susceptibility of F3 seedlings to glyphosate varied significantly with respect to F2 parent line and glyphosate rate. Mortality of 100% was observed in F3 seedlings from the Montgomery source in response to the 3.36 kg ae/ha glyphosate rate, while no mortality was observed in Westmoreland F3 seedlings in response to this glyphosate rate.
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