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dc.contributor.authorWhited, Bryce Matthewen_US
dc.description.abstractBiodegradable polyesters, such as poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), have been used to fabricate porous bone scaffolds to support bone tissue development. These scaffolds allow for cell seeding, attachment, growth and extracellular matrix production in vitro and are replaced by new bone tissue when implanted into bone sites in vivo. Hydroxyapatite (HAP) and Æ Ã -tricalcium phosphate (Æ Ã -TCP) ceramics have been incorporated into PLGA bone scaffolds and have been shown to increase their osteoconductivity (support cell attachment). Although HAP, Æ Ã -TCP, and biodegradable polyesters are osteoconductive, there is no evidence that these scaffold materials are osteoinductive (support cell differentiation). Calcium and phosphate ions, in contrast, have been postulated to be osteogenic factors that enhance osteoblast differentiation and mineralization. Recently, a zirconia-hybridized pyrophosphate stabilized amorphous calcium phosphate (Zr-ACP) has been synthesized which permits controlled release of calcium and phosphate ions and thus is hypothesized to be osteoinductive. Incorporation of Zr-ACP into a highly porous poly(DL lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) scaffold could potentially increase the osteoinductivity of the scaffold and therefore promote osteogenesis when implanted in vivo. To determine the osteoinductivity of Zr-ACP, a MC3T3-E1 mouse calvarial-derived osteoprogenitor cell line was used to measure cell response to Zr-ACP. To accomplish this objective, Zr-ACP was added to cell culture at different stages in cell maturation (days 0, 4 and 11). DNA synthesis, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, osteopontin synthesis and collagen synthesis were determined. Results indicate that culture in the presence of Zr-ACP significantly increased cell proliferation, ALP activity and osteopontin synthesis but not collagen synthesis. To determine the feasibility of incorporating Zr-ACP into a PLGA scaffold, PLGA/Zr-ACP composite foams (5% or 10% (w/v) polymer:solvent with 25 wt% or 50 wt% Zr-ACP) were fabricated using a thermal phase inversion technique. Scanning electron microscopy revealed a highly porous structure with pores ranging in size from a few microns to about 100 Æ Ã m. The amorphous structure of the Zr-ACP was maintained during composite fabrication as confirmed by X-ray diffraction measurements. Composite scaffolds also showed significantly greater compressive yield strengths and moduli as compared to pure polymer scaffolds. The results of this study indicate that Zr-ACP enhances the osteoblastic phenotype of MC3T3-E1 cells in vitro and can be incorporated into a porous PLGA scaffold. Porous PLGA/Zr-ACP composites are promising for use as bone scaffolds to heal bone defects.en_US
dc.publisherVirginia Techen_US
dc.rightsI hereby certify that, if appropriate, I have obtained and attached hereto a written permission statement from the owner(s) of each third party copyrighted matter to be included in my thesis, dissertation, or project report, allowing distribution as specified below. I certify that the version I submitted is the same as that approved by my advisory committee. I hereby grant to Virginia Tech or its agents the non-exclusive license to archive and make accessible, under the conditions specified below, my thesis, dissertation, or project report in whole or in part in all forms of media, now or hereafter known. I retain all other ownership rights to the copyright of the thesis, dissertation or project report. I also retain the right to use in future works (such as articles or books) all or part of this thesis, dissertation, or project report.en_US
dc.subjectBone tissue engineeringen_US
dc.subjectpolylactic aciden_US
dc.subjectcalcium phosphateen_US
dc.titleOsteoblast Response to Zirconia-Hybridized Pyrophosphate Stabilized Amorphous Calcium Phosphateen_US
dc.contributor.departmentBiomedical Engineeringen_US
dc.description.degreeMaster of Scienceen_US
thesis.degree.nameMaster of Scienceen_US
thesis.degree.grantorVirginia Polytechnic Institute and State Universityen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineBiomedical Engineeringen_US
dc.contributor.committeechairLove, Brian J.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberCotton, John R.en_US
dc.contributor.committeecochairGoldstein, Aaron S.en_US

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