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dc.contributor.authorGainer, Thomas Gregoryen_US
dc.description.abstractDuchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a severe and fatal muscle wasting disease characterized by a high mutation rate in the gene that encodes the membrane-associated protein dystrophin that results in absence of expressed protein. Although the primary genetic defect for DMD is known, the mechanisms that initiate the onset of DMD are not currently understood. This study tested the hypothesis that pathophysiological processes involved in DMD could be identified by the global expression of mRNA in maturing dystrophin- and utrophin-deficient mouse (mdx:utrn-/-) muscles. Two potential dystrophic onset mechanisms targeted for analysis were (1) disrupted expression of calcium handling proteins; and, (2) increased expression of immune response markers. An mRNA expression profile was developed following isolation of total RNA from control and mdx:utrn-/- triceps surae (TS) muscles at ages 9-10 and 20-21 days using Affymetrix® Mu74Av2 GeneChips®. Compared to control, the mRNA expression profile in mdx:utrn-/- muscles revealed there was a 3-fold increase in the number of gene transcripts differentially expressed more than 2-fold (53 transcripts at ages 9-10 days; 153 at ages 20-21 days). However, there were no changes in the mRNA transcripts for calcium handling proteins. In distinct contrast, there was up-regulation of transcripts that corresponded to an immune response (40 transcripts), extracellular matrix activity (14), and proteolysis (8). Up-regulation of several transcripts corresponded to cytokines and their receptors (11), chemokines and their receptors (5), and lymphoid and myeloid markers (16) suggesting that dystrophic muscle is susceptible to invasion by macrophages, leukocytes, B- and T-cells. These results are consistent with several reports (Spencer et al., 1997; Chen et al., 2000; Porter et al., 2002; Porter et al., 2003a; Porter et al., 2003b; Porter et al., 2004) that indicate the immune system may play an important role in the early pathophysiology of DMD. Understanding the functional aspects of an immune response in DMD onset should lead to more effective therapeutics.en_US
dc.publisherVirginia Techen_US
dc.rightsI hereby certify that, if appropriate, I have obtained and attached hereto a written permission statement from the owner(s) of each third party copyrighted matter to be included in my thesis, dissertation, or project report, allowing distribution as specified below. I certify that the version I submitted is the same as that approved by my advisory committee. I hereby grant to Virginia Tech or its agents the non-exclusive license to archive and make accessible, under the conditions specified below, my thesis, dissertation, or project report in whole or in part in all forms of media, now or hereafter known. I retain all other ownership rights to the copyright of the thesis, dissertation or project report. I also retain the right to use in future works (such as articles or books) all or part of this thesis, dissertation, or project report.en_US
dc.subjectMdx-Utrophin Knockout Mouseen_US
dc.subjectDuchenne Muscular Dystrophyen_US
dc.titleImmune Response Markers are Prevalent in the mRNA Expression Profile of Maturing Dystrophic Murine Skeletal Muscleen_US
dc.contributor.departmentHuman Nutrition, Foods, and Exerciseen_US
dc.description.degreeMaster of Scienceen_US
thesis.degree.nameMaster of Scienceen_US
thesis.degree.grantorVirginia Polytechnic Institute and State Universityen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineHuman Nutrition, Foods, and Exerciseen_US
dc.contributor.committeechairGrange, Robert W.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberWilliams, Jay H.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberRobertson, John L.en_US

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