Exploiting Multigrain Parallelism in Pairwise Sequence Search on Emergent CMP Architectures
Aji, Ashwin Mandayam
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With the emerging hybrid multi-core and many-core compute platforms delivering unprecedented high performance within a single chip, and making rapid strides toward the commodity processor market, they are widely expected to replace the multi-core processors in the existing High-Performance Computing (HPC) infrastructures, such as large scale clusters, grids and supercomputers. On the other hand in the realm of bioinformatics, the size of genomic databases is doubling every 12 months, and hence the need for novel approaches to parallelize sequence search algorithms has become increasingly important. This thesis puts a significant step forward in bridging the gap between software and hardware by presenting an efficient and scalable model to accelerate one of the popular sequence alignment algorithms by exploiting multigrain parallelism that is exposed by the emerging multiprocessor architectures. Specifically, we parallelize a dynamic programming algorithm called Smith-Waterman both within and across multiple Cell Broadband Engines and within an nVIDIA GeForce General Purpose Graphics Processing Unit (GPGPU). Cell Broadband Engine: We parallelize the Smith-Waterman algorithm within a Cell node by performing a blocked data decomposition of the dynamic programming matrix followed by pipelined execution of the blocks across the synergistic processing elements (SPEs) of the Cell. We also introduce novel optimization methods that completely utilize the vector processing power of the SPE. As a result, we achieve near-linear scalability or near-constant efficiency for up to 16 SPEs on the dual-Cell QS20 blades, and our design is highly scalable to more cores, if available. We further extend this design to accelerate the Smith-Waterman algorithm across nodes on both the IBM QS20 and the PlayStation3 Cell cluster platforms and achieve a maximum speedup of 44, when compared to the execution times on a single Cell node. We then introduce an analytical model to accurately estimate the execution times of parallel sequence alignments and wavefront algorithms in general on the Cell cluster platforms. Lastly, we contribute and evaluate TOSS -- a Throughput-Oriented Sequence Scheduler, which leverages the performance prediction model and dynamically partitions the available processing elements to simultaneously align multiple sequences. This scheme succeeds in aligning more sequences per unit time with an improvement of 33.5% over the naive first-come, first-serve (FCFS) scheduler. nVIDIA GPGPU: We parallelize the Smith-Waterman algorithm on the GPGPU by optimizing the code in stages, which include optimal data layout strategies, coalesced memory accesses and blocked data decomposition techniques. Results show that our methods provide a maximum speedup of 3.6 on the nVIDIA GPGPU when compared to the performance of the naive implementation of Smith-Waterman.
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