Matrix Metalloproteinases 2 and 9 in Normal Canine Cerebrospinal Fluid.
Bergman, Robert Loring
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Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis is a standard part of a diagnostic evaluation. Commonly evaluated components include the cell count, protein concentration, glucose, and cytology. CSF analysis can be diagnostic in some diseases such as fungal infections and CNS lymphoma. Often, CSF analysis is not specific, but more information can be obtained. Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMPs) are enzymes that have been found in human CSF. They are calcium and zinc dependent endoproteinases with overlapping substrates. They hydrolyze at least one component of tissue extracellular matrix (ECM), such as collagen or elastin. They are important in normal physiologic processes such as angiogenesis, reproduction and wound healing. One class of MMPs, the gelatinases, degrade gelatins and type IV collagen include MMP 2 and MMP 9. MMPs are important in many pathological processes that involve unregulated matrix destruction such as arthritis, neoplasia and CNS diseases. MMP2 is known to be constituitively produced in CSF while MMP 9 is present only in certain pathologic conditions such as multiple sclerosis, neoplasia and inflammatory diseases. We hypothesize that MMP2 is present in normal canine CSF while MMP 9 is absent. Cerebrospinal fluid samples were taken from 23 normal dogs that were being used for other research purposes. Each CSF sample was evaluated immediately for red blood cells (RBCs), white blood cells (WBCs), protein, and glucose, and then stored at -70Â°C. Cytological examination was also performed. CSF samples were considered normal if the protein was less than 25 mg/dl, WBCs were less than 6 Âµl, and RBCs were less than 25 Âµl. Each dog was euthanized and the brains processed for routine histopathology. MMP analysis was done using gelatin zymography and an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Bands of enzyme activity were visible following staining due to enzyme degradation of the gelatin. A commercially available polyclonal sandwich ELISA was used to identify the pro form of MMP2. The mean WBC count for the CSF samples was 0.96 WBC/ml with a range of 0-3 WBC/ml. The mean protein was 12 mg/dl, with a range of 8-17 mg/dl. The mean RBC count was 3.65 RBC/ml with a range of 0-21 RBC/ml. All normal samples of CSF contained a band of clearing that corresponded to the human commercial standard of proMMP2. No other major bands of clearing were noted on normal samples. The commercial human standards also contained ProMMP2. Other bands were present, but were faint and variable. Using a polyclonal antibody based sandwich ELISA, with samples run in triplicate, the mean pro MMP 2 levels were determined to be 5.61 ng/ml with a range of 3.36 - 10.83 ng/ml. We conclude that normal CSF values are narrower than what has been previously reported for protein concentration and WBC count. Also, the pro form of MMP 2 is present in normal canine CSF based on results of gelatin zymography and ELISA.
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