Chemistry and Transport of Metals from Entrenched Biosolids at a Reclaimed Mineral Sands Mining Site in Dinwiddie County, Virginia
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Deep row incorporation of biosolids is an alternative land application method that may allow higher than currently permitted mine land reclamation application rates. Biosolids treated by various processes possess characteristics that uniquely affect metal solubility and mobility due to their influence on metal speciation. The objectives of this research were to compare the effects of biosolids stabilization type and rate on heavy metal solubility, mobility, and speciation. Two rates each of Alexandria, (Virginia) anaerobically digested (213 and 426 dry Mg ha-1) and Blue Plains (Washington, DC) lime-stabilized (329 and 657 dry Mg ha-1) biosolids were placed in trenches at a mineral sands mine reclamation site in Dinwiddie County, Virginia in June and July 2006. Vertical and lateral transport of heavy metals from the biosolids seams were determined by analyzing leachate collected in zero tension lysimeters below the trenches and suction lysimeters adjacent to the trenches. Chloride (Cl-), sulfate (SO42-), nitrate (NO3-), phosphate (PO43-), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and pH were also determined within the dissolved fractions (< 0.45 Âµm) collected on September 8, 2006, November 3, 2006, January 5, 2007, June 8, 2007, and September 7, 2007 as input for the speciation program MINTEQA2. Silver, Cd, Pb, and Sn did not move vertically or laterally to any significant extent. Lime-stabilized biosolids produced higher cumulative metal mass transport per sampling period for Cu (967 g ha-1), Ni (171 g ha-1), and Zn (1027 g ha-1) than the anaerobically digested biosolids and control during the 15-month period following entrenching. Barium mass loss was similar for both biosolids. All metals moved primarily with particulates. MINTEQA2 predicted the majority of the metals within the dissolved fraction were present as free ions. As pH decreased and time increased, the amount of association with fulvic acids decreased allowing more free ions and binding with inorganic ligands. Little movement into groundwater demonstrates that anaerobically digested and lime-stabilized biosolids can be land-applied at high rates with little concern of heavy metal contamination of groundwater under these conditions.
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