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dc.contributor.authorGay Alanis, Leon F.en_US
dc.date.accessioned2009-08-19en_US
dc.date.accessioned2014-03-14T20:42:10Z
dc.date.available2014-03-14T20:42:10Z
dc.date.issued2009-07-06en_US
dc.identifier.otheretd-07282009-141002en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10919/34231
dc.description.abstractWater infrastructure systems worldwide use large amounts of energy to operate. Energy efficiency efforts are relevant because even relatively small gains in efficiency have the potential to bring significant benefits to these utilities in terms of financial savings and enhanced sustainability and resiliency. In order to achieve higher efficiency levels, energy usage must be measured and controlled. A common tool used to measure energy efficiency in water utilities and perform comparisons between utilities is metric benchmarking. Energy benchmarking scores are intended to measure how efficient water systems are among their peers, in a simple and accurate fashion. Although many different benchmarking methods are currently used, we chose to use the segregated benchmarking scores proposed by Carlson on his research report from 2007 (Carlson, 2007). The research objective is to improve these production energy use and treatment energy use benchmarking scores by analyzing the systemâ s particular characteristics that might skew the results, such as topology, water loss and raw water quality. We propose that benchmarking metrics should be always used within a particular context for each specific utility being analyzed. A complementary score (Thermodynamic Score) was developed to provide context on how energy efficient is the utility not only compared with other utilities, but also compared with the potential maximum efficiency the utility can reach itself. We analyzed eight utilities from Virginia to obtain production and treatment energy use benchmarking scores and also thermodynamic scores using the minimum required energy approach. Benchmarking scores were skewed in 50% of the studied utilities. This means that benchmarking scores should never be used as a black box. The thermodynamic score proved to be useful for measurement of energy efficiency of a water utility on its production phase. In addition, some utilities can detect significant financial saving opportunities using the minimum required energy analysis for production operations.en_US
dc.publisherVirginia Techen_US
dc.relation.haspartMSThesisRev.pdfen_US
dc.rightsI hereby certify that, if appropriate, I have obtained and attached hereto a written permission statement from the owner(s) of each third party copyrighted matter to be included in my thesis, dissertation, or project report, allowing distribution as specified below. I certify that the version I submitted is the same as that approved by my advisory committee. I hereby grant to Virginia Tech or its agents the non-exclusive license to archive and make accessible, under the conditions specified below, my thesis, dissertation, or project report in whole or in part in all forms of media, now or hereafter known. I retain all other ownership rights to the copyright of the thesis, dissertation or project report. I also retain the right to use in future works (such as articles or books) all or part of this thesis, dissertation, or project report.en_US
dc.subjectminimum energy requirementsen_US
dc.subjectbenchmarkingen_US
dc.subjectenergy efficiencyen_US
dc.subjecthead lossen_US
dc.titleMeasuring Energy Efficiency of Water Utilitiesen_US
dc.typeThesisen_US
dc.contributor.departmentCivil Engineeringen_US
thesis.degree.nameMaster of Scienceen_US
thesis.degree.levelmastersen_US
thesis.degree.grantorVirginia Polytechnic Institute and State Universityen_US
dc.contributor.committeechairSinha, Sunil K.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberEdwards, Marc A.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberCornelius, Christopher J.en_US
dc.identifier.sourceurlhttp://scholar.lib.vt.edu/theses/available/etd-07282009-141002/en_US
dc.date.sdate2009-07-28en_US
dc.date.rdate2009-08-19


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