New Designs for Wideband Hemispherical Helical Antennas
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Radiation properties of the proposed hemispherical helical antennas are studied both theoretically and experimentally. A commercial software, based on the method of moments, is used to perform the numerical analysis of these helices. Three-dimensional far-field patterns, axial ratio, directivity, and voltage standing-wave ratio (VSWR) are calculated for several designs. The impacts of tapering as well as tilting of the metallic strip on radiation characteristics are examined. Also, matching of the proposed hemispherical antennas to 50â ¦ transmission lines is addressed. A 4.5-turn hemispherical helix with tapered radiating element and zero degree tilt angle, (metallic strip is perpendicular to the hemisphere axis of symmetry) provides the largest overall bandwidth. A nonlinearly tapered matching section is incorporated into the design in order to reduce the VSWR. For this design, an overall measured bandwidth of about 24% at a center frequency of 3.35 GHz is achieved. Over this bandwidth, the axial ratio remains below 3 dB, the VSWR is less than 2, and the directivity is about 9 Â±1 dB. A half- power beamwidth of 70Â° is also obtained.
A prototype of the best design was fabricated and tested using the VT indoor antenna range. Radiation patterns, the scattering parameter S11, and the axial ratio were measured. The measured and simulated results agree reasonably well. In particular, agreements between measured and calculated far-field patterns and VSWR are quite remarkable. This compact, low profile antenna might find useful applications in avionics, global positioning systems (GPS), and high data rate wireless communication systems.
- Masters Theses