Numerical Investigation using RANS Equations of Two-dimensional Turbulent Jets and Bubbly Mixing layers
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This thesis presents numerical investigations of two-dimensional single-phase turbulent jets and bubbly mixing layers using Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations. The behavior of a turbulent jet confined in a channel depends on the Reynolds number and geometry of the channel which is given by the expansion ratio (channel width to jet thickness) and offset ratio (eccentricity of the jet entrance). Steady solutions to the RANS equations for a two-dimensional turbulent jet injected in the middle of a channel have been obtained. When no entrainment from the channel base is allowed, the flow is asymmetric for a wide range of expansion ratio at high Reynolds number. The jet attaches to one of the channel side walls. The attachment length increases linearly with the channel width for fixed value of Reynolds number. The attachment length is also found to be independent of the (turbulent) jet Reynolds number for fixed expansion ratio. By simulating half of the channel and imposing symmetry, we can construct a steady symmetric solution to the RANS equations. This implies that there are possibly two solutions to the steady RANS equations, one is symmetric but unstable, and the other solution is asymmetric (the jet attaches to one of the side walls) but stable. A symmetric solution is also obtained if entrainment from jet exit plane is permitted. Fearn et al. (Journal of Fluid Mechanics, vol. 121, 1990) studied the laminar problem, and showed that the flow asymmetry of a symmetric expansion arises at a symmetry-breaking bifurcation as the jet Reynolds number is increased from zero. In the present study the Reynolds number is high and the jet is turbulent. Therefore, a symmetry-breaking bifurcation parameter might be the level of entrainment or expansion ratio. The two-dimensional turbulent bubbly mixing layer, which is a multiphase problem, is investigated using RANS based models. Available experimental data show that the spreading rate of turbulent bubbly mixing layers is greater than that of the corresponding single phase flow. The presence of bubbles also increases the turbulence level. The global structure of the flow proved to be sensitive to the void fraction. The present RANS simulations predict this behavior, but different turbulence models give different spreading rates. There is a significant difference in turbulence kinetic energy between numerical predictions and experimental data. The models tested include k-Îµ, shear-stress transport (SST), and Reynolds stress transport (SSG) models. All tested turbulence models under predict the spreading rate of the bubbly mixing layer, even though they accurately predict the spreading rate for single phase flow. The best predictions are obtained by using SST model.
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