Fungicide Sensitivity of Erysiphe necator and Plasmopara viticola from Virginia and nearby states
Colcol, Jeneylyne Ferrera
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This study was undertaken to determine the sensitivity of grape downy mildew (DM, Plasmopara viticola) and powdery mildew (PM, Erysiphe necator) to commonly used single-site fungicides in Virginia and nearby states. DM and PM isolates were collected from 2005 to 2007. In grape leaf disc bioassays, 92% of the DM isolates were QoI (azoxystrobin)-resistant, but none were resistant to mefenoxam. Eighty-two percent of the PM isolates were QoI-resistant, but none were resistant to boscalid and quinoxyfen. The frequency of the G143A point mutation, which confers high levels of QoI resistance, was quantified in DM and PM isolates by real-time PCR. Most of the QoI-resistant DM and PM isolates contained >95% of the 143A allele. QoI-sensitive DM isolates contained less than 1% of 143A. One out of 145 and 14 out of 154 QoI-resistant DM and PM isolates (able to grow on azoxystrobin concentration ï ³ 1 Âµg/ml), respectively, contained less than 1% 143A. Most PM isolates exhibited reduced sensitivity to five DMI fungicides when compared to a sensitive subgroup (n=9) and compared to published reports for unexposed populations; the resistance factor (median EC50 of the entire isolate collection divided by median EC50 of sensitive subgroup) was highest for tebuconazole (360) and myclobutanil (350), followed by triflumizole (79), triadimefon (61), and fenarimol (53). Sensitivities to all five DMI fungicides, but also azoxystrobin, were moderately to strongly correlated (pairwise r-values ranging from 0.60 to 0.88).
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