Factors Influencing Darter Dispersal Patterns in the Upper Roanoke River Watershed, Virginia
Roberts, James H.
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Effective delineation and management of stream fish populations requires a thorough knowledge of dispersal patterns, because these patterns affect a number of other demographic rates such as population growth, reproduction, survival, and gene flow. Previous studies of stream fish dispersal patterns have generally established species- and stream-specific home ranges and movement rates, but have largely failed to account for the environmental variables that may cause these parameters to vary. Many fishes occupy a variety of streams across a broad spectrum of ecological conditions, and movement rates (and thus population dynamics) may respond to these environmental gradients. Furthermore, enhanced understanding of the ecological features that induce or impede dispersal will help guide future management of stream channels for population connectivity. To determine the instream features that influence the dispersal patterns of darters, I conducted a spatially intensive mark/recapture study of three darter species in the upper Roanoke River watershed. Logistic regression was used to relate observed inter-riffle movements to gradients in riffle and corridor attributes. During the first study period, habitat area loss and habitat spacing drove dispersal patterns. However, a model developed from these data transferred poorly to the second study period, in which density dependence was a more effective predictor of dispersal. Individual size did not seem to influence the probability of emigration, but did influence the distance traveled following emigration, particularly for the two more specialist species. This finding suggests a size-based dominance hierarchy for habitat selection and occupancy in darters. Predation threat had only a minor effect on the probability of traversing inhospitable corridors, but experimentally introduced structural cover significantly elevated dispersal rates through such corridors. Taken together, results of this study indicate that a complex array of ecological features interact to produce heterogeneity in dispersal rates across the stream landscape. Knowledge of these influences can be used to manage stream channels for dispersal permeability. In addition to field studies, laboratory studies were undertaken to determine the efficacy of visible implant elastomer (VIE) and injectable photonic dye (IPD) for marking darters. No previous studies have rigorously evaluated these marks in darters, and comparisons of the two technologies in any taxa are few. Results of the laboratory study indicated that VIE is preferable to IPD for marking darters, particularly when mark longevity greater than 80 days is desired. Individuals marked with VIE exhibited higher survival and mark retention rates than did individuals marked with IPD. Additionally, VIE mark retention was more consistent across body locations. Retention of both marking technologies was biased by color. My study indicates that the results of tagging efficiency studies are not applicable across taxa, and that pilot studies are necessary prior to field use of marks in previously untested species.
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