Influence of wood on the pyrolysis of poultry litter
Mante, Nii Ofei Daku
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Pyrolytic oils produced from poultry litter differ in physico-chemical properties and the chemical composition. The litter is composed of manure and bedding material with traces of spilled feed and feathers. The type and amount of bedding material was varied to investigate its influence on the pyrolysis of layer manure. 400g of each feedstock: manure, wood (pine and oak), and mixtures of manure and wood in proportions (75:25 50:50, and 25:75 w/w %) respectively were subjected to fast pyrolysis at 450oC in a fluidized bed reactor. The total pyrolytic oil yield ranged from 43.3% to 64.5 wt%. The highest bio oil yield and the lowest char yield were obtained from oak wood. The manure oil had the highest HHV of 29.7 MJ/kg, the highest pH (5.89), the lowest density (1.14 g/cm3) and a relatively low viscosity of 130cSt. The oils had relatively high nitrogen content ranging from 5.88wt% to 1.36 wt%; low ash content (approximately <0.07wt %) and low sulfur content (<0.28wt %). FT-IR, 13CNMR, and 1HNMR analysis showed that manure oil was rich in aliphatic hydrocarbon and primary and secondary amides and the addition of wood introduced oxygenated compounds like aliphatic alcohols, phenols, aromatic ethers, and carbonyl/carboxylic groups into the oil. TG/DTG analysis also showed that the thermal decomposition of the oils were different depending on the amount and the type of wood in the manure/wood mixture. The parametric variables used for the mixture of 50% manure and 50% pine wood shavings study were; temperature (400-550Â°C), nitrogen gas flow rate (12-24 L/min), and feed rate (160-480 g/h). The results showed that the pyrolysis product yields, physical properties and the chemical composition of the oil were influenced by all parameters. Temperature was the most influential factor and its effect on the liquid, char and gas yields were significant. It was evident that depending on the gas flow rate and the feed rate, a maximum oil yield (51.1wt.%) can be achieved between 400-500 oC. Also an increase in temperature significantly increased the oil viscosity and decreased the carbonyl/carboxylic and the primary aliphatic alcohol functional groups in the oil. The study on the influence of wood on the stability of the oils when stored at ambient conditions for 8 months in a 30ml glass bottle showed that the viscosity of the oils increases when stored, however the manure oil was relatively more stable and the oil from the 50/50 mixture for both pine and oak was the least stable. It was found that the stability of the oils from the manure and wood mixtures were dependent on the amount and the type of wood (pine or oak) added to the manure. Also the addition of 10% solvent (methanol/ethanol) to the oil from 50% manure and 50% pine reduced the initial viscosity of the oil and was also beneficial in slowing down the increase in viscosity during storage.
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